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Previous studies have suggested that calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaMKIV) functions as a positive regulator for memory formation and that age-related memory deficits are the result of dysfunctional signaling pathways mediated by cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), the downstream transcription factor of CaMKIV. Little is known,(More)
Fragile X syndrome is caused by a lack of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) due to silencing of the FMR1 gene. The metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) in the central nervous system contribute to higher brain functions including learning/memory, persistent pain, and mental disorders. Our recent study has shown that activation of Group I mGluR(More)
During fear conditioning, animals learn an association between a previously neutral or conditioned stimulus (CS) and an aversive or unconditioned stimulus (US). Subsequent reexposure to the CS alone triggers two competing processes. Brief reexposure to the CS initiates reconsolidation processes that serve to stabilize or maintain the original CS-US memory.(More)
Unraveling the mechanisms by which the molecular manipulation of genes of interest enhances cognitive function is important to establish genetic therapies for cognitive disorders. Although CREB is thought to positively regulate formation of long-term memory (LTM), gain-of-function effects of CREB remain poorly understood, especially at the behavioral level.(More)
BACKGROUND Memory consolidation is a process to stabilize short-term memory, generating long-term memory. A critical biochemical feature of memory consolidation is a requirement for gene expression. Previous studies have shown that fear memories are consolidated through the activation of gene expression in the amygdala and hippocampus, indicating essential(More)
Mounting evidence suggests that neural oscillations are related to the learning and consolidation of newly formed memory in the mammalian brain. Four to seven Hertz (4-7 Hz) oscillations in the prefrontal cortex are also postulated to be involved in learning and attention processes. Additionally, slow delta oscillations (1-4 Hz) have been proposed to be(More)
CREB has been reported to be activated by injury and is commonly used as marker for pain-related plasticity changes in somatosensory pathways, including spinal dorsal horn neurons and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). However no evidence has been reported to support the direct role of activated CREB in injury-related behavioral sensitization (or(More)
Long-term potentiation (LTP) is a key cellular model for studying mechanisms for learning and memory. Previous studies reported that the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaMKIV) is critical for gene regulation, and behavioral learning and memory. Less is known about the roles of CaMKIV in cortical plasticity and trace fear memory. Here we have(More)
CREB is a pivotal mediator of activity-regulated gene transcription that underlies memory formation and allocation. The contribution of a key CREB cofactor, CREB-regulated transcription coactivator 1 (CRTC1), has, however, remained elusive. Here we show that several constitutive kinase pathways and an activity-regulated phosphatase, calcineurin, converge to(More)
Memory retrieval is considered to have roles in memory enhancement. Recently, memory reconsolidation was suggested to reinforce or integrate new information into reactivated memory. Here, we show that reactivated inhibitory avoidance (IA) memory is enhanced through reconsolidation under conditions in which memory extinction is not induced. This memory(More)