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Proteins serve as molecular machines in performing their biological functions, but the detailed structural transitions are difficult to observe in their native aqueous environments in real time. For example, despite extensive studies, the solution-phase structures of the intermediates along the allosteric pathways for the transitions between the relaxed (R)(More)
Generally, a protein molecule should form its native structure to perform its biological function in the living cell. However, the failure of proper folding, i.e. misfolding, occurs occasionally and this causes aggregation and/or degradation of the protein, which is potentially linked to protein mis-folding diseases, e.g. prion disease and Parkinson's(More)
The [Au(CN)2 (-)]3 trimer in water experiences a strong van der Waals interaction between the d(10) gold atoms due to large relativistic effect and can serve as an excellent model system to study the bond formation process in real time. The trimer in the ground state (S0) exists as a bent structure without the covalent bond between the gold atoms, and upon(More)
Ionic species often play important roles in chemical reactions occurring in water and other solvents, but it has been elusive to determine the solvent-dependent molecular structure with atomic resolution. The triiodide ion has a molecular structure that sensitively changes depending on the type of solvent and its symmetry can be broken by strong(More)
The making and breaking of atomic bonds are essential processes in chemical reactions. Although the ultrafast dynamics of bond breaking have been studied intensively using time-resolved techniques, it is very difficult to study the structural dynamics of bond making, mainly because of its bimolecular nature. It is especially difficult to initiate and follow(More)
The exact shape of wave functions has never been directly measured because an ensemble measurement is often overwhelmed by the contributions of highly populated configurations. In this work, we explore the possibility of directly obtaining vibrational wave functions by single-object scattering sampling (SOSS) using intense, ultrashort X-ray pulses provided(More)
Time-resolved X-ray diffraction provides direct information on three-dimensional structures of reacting molecules and thus can be used to elucidate structural dynamics of chemical and biological reactions. In this review, we discuss time-resolved X-ray diffraction on small molecules and proteins with particular emphasis on its application to crystalline(More)
The effect of solute-solvent interaction on molecular structure and reaction dynamics has been a target of intense studies in solution-phase chemistry, but it is often challenging to characterize the subtle effect of solute-solvent interaction even for the simplest diatomic molecules. Since the I2 molecule has only one structural parameter and exhibits(More)
The mechanism of a photochemical reaction involves the formation and dissociation of various short-lived species on ultrafast timescales and therefore its characterization requires detailed structural information on the transient species. By making use of a structurally sensitive X-ray probe, time-resolved X-ray liquidography (TRXL) can directly elucidate(More)
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