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The apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA-1) of Plasmodium falciparum is a prime malaria asexual blood-stage vaccine candidate. Antigenic variation is one of the main obstacles in the development of a universal effective malaria vaccine. The extracellular region of P. falciparum AMA-1 (PfAMA-1) consists of three domains (I-III), of which the domain I is the most(More)
Between 2002 and 2004, the standardized 28-day protocol recently developed by the World Health Organization was used to explore the efficacy of chloroquine, in the treatment of uncomplicated, Plasmodium falciparum malaria, in five sentinel sites in southern Iran. All but 14 of the 158 patients enrolled (128, 28 and two from the provinces of(More)
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) or kala-azar mainly affects children in endemic areas. This study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of VL using direct agglutination test (DAT) in children living in rural districts of Alborz Province located 30 km from Tehran capital city of Iran. Multi-stage cluster random sampling was applied. Blood samples were(More)
BACKGROUND The aim was to evaluate the relapse risk of vivax malaria in patients who received radical treatment in Hormozgan Province, a malarious area located on southeast of Iran. METHODS A total of 95 symptomatic vivax malaria infected patients were enrolled in urban health centers of Bandar-Abbas, Minab, Bandar-Jask and Bashagard districts of(More)
BACKGROUND Schizophrenia is a serious, chronic, and often debilitating neuropsychiatric disorder. Its causes are still poorly understood. Besides genetic and non-genetic (environmental) factors are thought to be important as the cause of the structural and functional deficits that characterize schizophrenia. This study aimed to compare Toxoplasma gondii(More)
Immune response in BALB/c mice immunized 3 times with different doses (50 μg or 200 μg of protein) of Alum precipitated autoclaved Leishmania major (Alum-ALM) mixed with either BCG (1x10(7); CFU) or different doses of killed Mycobacterium vaccae (1x10(6), 1x10(7)) was assessed. Mice immunized with low dose of Alum-ALM mixed with either BCG or low M. vaccae(More)
BACKGROUND In human leishmaniasis Th1/Th2 dichotomy similar to murine model is not clearly defined and surrogate marker(s) of protection is not yet known. In this study, Th1/Th2 cytokines (IL-5, IL-10, IL-13 and IFN-γ) profile induced by purified CD4(+)/CD8(+) T cells in response to Leishmania antigens were assessed at transcript and protein levels in 14(More)
BACKGROUND In recent years, decreasing annual rainfalls in some countries and population growth have led to a shortage of freshwater resources. Thus, recycled wastewaters has been suggested for agricultural activities. Contamination of wastewaters with pathogens is a major concern for the use of these waters. This study aimed to (i) investigate the(More)
BACKGROUND The assays currently available for the detection of specific anti-Toxoplasma antibodies may vary in their abilities to detect serum immunoglobulins, due to the Lack of a purified standardized antigen. The aim of this study was evaluation the recombinant Toxoplasma gondii SAG1 antigen for the serodiagnosis of acute and chronic toxoplasmosis. (More)
Merozoite surface protein-1 (MSP-1) and merozoite surface protein-2 (MSP-2) were used to develop vaccines and to investigate the genetic diversity in Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Iran. Nested polymerase chain reaction amplification was used to determine polymorphisms of block 2 of the MSP-1 and the central domain of MSP-2 genes. A total of 67(More)