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BACKGROUND Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is a Gram-negative pathogen that must successfully adapt to the broad fluctuations in the concentration of dissolved dioxygen encountered in the host. In Escherichia coli, ArcA (Aerobic Respiratory Control) helps the cells to sense and respond to the presence of dioxygen. The global role of(More)
Vibrio vulnificus is an estuarine bacterium capable of causing rapidly fatal infections through both ingestion and wound infection. Like other opportunistic pathogens, V. vulnificus must adapt to potentially stressful environmental changes while living freely in seawater, upon colonization of the oyster gut, and upon infection of such diverse hosts as(More)
The concept of improving animal health through improved gut health has existed in food animal production for decades; however, only recently have we had the tools to identify microbes in the intestine associated with improved performance. Currently, little is known about how the avian microbiome develops or the factors that affect its composition. To begin(More)
Emerging evidence has implicated reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Although intestinal epithelial cells produce the ROS-neutralizing enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD), the protein and activity levels of copper/zinc (Cu/Zn) and manganese (Mn) SOD are perturbed in inflamed tissues of IBD patients. Thus we(More)
In the ancient anaerobic environment, ferrous iron (Fe(2+)) was one of the first metal cofactors. Oxygenation of the ancient world challenged bacteria to acquire the insoluble ferric iron (Fe(3+)) and later to defend against reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by the Fenton chemistry. To acquire Fe(3+), bacteria produce low-molecular weight compounds,(More)
BACKGROUND The Ferric uptake regulator (Fur) is a transcriptional regulator that controls iron homeostasis in bacteria. Although the regulatory role of Fur in Escherichia coli is well characterized, most of the studies were conducted under routine culture conditions, i.e., in ambient oxygen concentration. To reveal potentially novel aspects of the Fur(More)
Oxalic acid is found in dietary sources (such as coffee, tea, and chocolate) or is produced by the intestinal microflora from metabolic precursors, like ascorbic acid. In the human intestine, oxalate may combine with calcium, sodium, magnesium, or potassium to form less soluble salts, which can cause pathological disorders such as hyperoxaluria,(More)
A strategy for functional gene replacement in the chromosome of Lactobacillus gasseri is described. The phospho-beta-galactosidase II gene (lacII) was functionally replaced by the manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) gene (sodA) from Streptococcus thermophilus, by adapting the insertional inactivation method described for lactobacilli [Russell, W.M. and(More)
This report describes the isolation, sequencing, and functional analysis of the sodA gene, encoding Mn-superoxide dismutase, from Streptococcus thermophilus AO54. The gene was found to encode a 201 amino acid polypeptide with 88 and 83% identity to SodA from Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus agalacticae, respectively. Primer extension analysis revealed(More)
Pathogenic spirochetes cause clinically relevant diseases in humans and animals, such as Lyme disease and leptospirosis. The causative agent of Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, and the causative agent of leptospirosis, Leptospria interrogans, encounter reactive oxygen species (ROS) during their enzootic cycles. This report demonstrated that(More)