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As the term “masked mycotoxins” encompasses only conjugated mycotoxins generated by plants and no other possible forms of mycotoxins and their modifications, we hereby propose for all these forms a systematic definition consisting of four hierarchic levels. The highest level differentiates the free and unmodified forms of mycotoxins from those being(More)
An effective and timesaving analytical method was developed for the determination of 12 ergot alkaloids (ergometrine, ergotamine, ergocristine, α-ergokryptine, ergosine, ergocornine, and their respective -inine isomers) in rye and rye flour. Samples were extracted with dichloromethane/ethyl acetate/methanol/aqueous ammonia (25%) (50/25/5/1, v/v/v/v), and(More)
As a basis for the collection of occurrence and exposure data of ergot alkaloids in food, an HPLC method coupled with fluorimetric detection (HPLC-FLD) for the determination of 12 pharmacologically active ergot alkaloids in rye and rye products was developed. Samples were extracted with a mixture of ethyl acetate, methanol, and aqueous ammonia, followed by(More)
In order to calculate the dietary fumonisin intake of the German consumer, a large survey was carried out on a variety of potentially contaminated products in the period between December 1998 and July 2001. A total of 1960 food samples comprising all known relevant groups of products were analysed for fumonisins. Furthermore, 272 of these samples were also(More)
Regarding the cancer risk assessment of acrylamide (AA) it is of basic interest to know, as to what amount of the absorbed AA is metabolized to glycidamide (GA) in humans, compared to what has been observed in laboratory animals. GA is suspected of being the ultimate carcinogenic metabolite of AA. From experiments with CYP2E1-deficient mice it can be(More)
After the publication of high levels of acrylamide (AA) in food, many research activities started all over the world in order to determine the occurrence and the concentration of this substance in various types of food. As no validated methods were available at that time, interlaboratory studies on the determination of AA in food were of the highest(More)
An analytical method based on high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) detection for the simultaneous quantification of 12 Alternaria toxins in wine, vegetable juices and fruit juices was developed. Excellent chromatographic performance was demonstrated for tenuazonic acid (TeA) in a multi-analyte method. This(More)
A new method for the determination of zearalenone in edible oils with size exclusion chromatography (SEC) followed by LC-MS/MS as well as HPLC-FLD was developed and validated. By using the LC-MS/MS determination no further clean up step is necessary after the SEC. The correlation coefficient of 0.999 for the two detection systems is acceptable. In this(More)
During the preparation of cooked foods acrylamide is formed from asparagine and reducing sugars at high temperatures. By-products of oil, starch and sugar production, which may be found in animal feed, partially result from processing steps using heat treatment that are similarly likely to form acrylamide. Possibly, pelletizing during the processing of(More)
Within a joint research project entitled "Analysis and occurrence of importantFusarium toxins (deoxynivalenol and zearalenone) and dietary intake of these toxins by the German consumer", supported by the German Federal Ministry of Consumer Protection, Food and Agriculture (BMVEL), representative analytical data are generated on the contamination level of(More)