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Enzymes of the Rel/Spo family enable bacteria to survive prolonged periods of nutrient limitation by producing an intracellular signaling alarmone, (p)ppGpp, which triggers the so-called stringent response. Both the synthesis of (p)ppGpp from ATP and GDP(GTP), and its hydrolysis to GDP(GTP) and pyrophosphate, are catalyzed by Rel/Spo proteins. The 2.1 A(More)
To investigate the metabolism of (p)ppGpp in amino-acid-producing coryneform bacteria, a PCR-based strategy using degenerate consensus oligonucleotides was applied to isolate the rel gene of Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032. The gene consists of 2283 nucleotides and encodes a protein of 760 amino acids with a molecular mass of 84.4 kDa. The amino acid(More)
The complete nucleotide sequences of four genes and one open reading frame (ORF1) adjacent to the streptokinase gene, skc, from Streptococcus equisimilis H46A were determined. These genes are encoded on the opposite DNA strand to skc and are arranged as follows: dexB-abc-lrp-skc-ORF1-rel. The dexB gene, coding for an α-glucosidase (Mr 61733), and abc,(More)
The entire nucleotide sequence of a cloned 2568-bp PstI fragment from the genome of Streptococcus equisimilis H46A encoding the streptokinase gene (skc) has been determined. The longest open reading frame comprises 1320 bp which code for streptokinase. The protein is synthesized with a 26-amino acid residue N-terminal extension having properties(More)
Novel shuttle vectors of small size and increased copy number capable of replication in Escherichia coli, L-forms of Proteus mirabilis, and streptococci were constructed from a streptococcal erythromycin-resistant plasmid and an Escherichia coli phasmid. The streptokinase gene, skc, was inserted into one of them, and skc expression was studied in(More)
A molecular epidemiological study was conducted to determine the distribution of the streptokinase gene in group A streptococcal strains of different M types and in other streptococcal species. Plasmid pNC1, containing only the internal coding sequence of the streptokinase gene from group C streptococcal strain H46A, was used as a DNA probe in colony and(More)
In Streptococcus equisimilis H46A, a hypersymmetrical transcription terminator with bidirectional activity was localized between the translational termination codons of the streptokinase gene, skc, and the rel-orf1 genes. These two transcription units are oriented towards each other, and under normal conditions the skc mRNA level exceeds that of the(More)
The gene specifying the group A streptokinase (ska) gene was cloned from an M type 49 strain of Streptococcus pyogenes and shown to express in Escherichia coli. The nucleotide sequence of the DNA fragment carrying ska was determined and compared to that of the group C streptokinase gene (skc). There is 90% sequence identity between the two genes, with(More)
Genomic DNA from Streptococcus equisimilis strain H46A was cloned in Escherichia coli by using the bacteriophage lambda replacement vector L47 and an in vitro packaging system. A casein/plasminogen overlay technique was used to screen the phage bank for recombinants carrying the streptokinase gene ( skc ). The gene was present with a frequency of 1 in 836(More)
The erythromycin resistance plasmid pSM752 carrying the cloned streptokinase gene, skc, was introduced by protoplast transformation into Streptococcus equisimilis H46A from which skc was originally cloned. Cells transiently supporting the replication of pSM752 gave rise to an erythromycin-resistant clone designated H46SM which was plasmid free and produced(More)