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Experiments have shown that the folding rate constants of two dozen structurally unrelated, small, single-domain proteins can be expressed in terms of one quantity (the contact order) that depends exclusively on the topology of the folded state. Such dependence is unique in chemical kinetics. Here we investigate its physical origin and derive the(More)
Recently, it has become possible to unfold a single protein molecule titin, by pulling it with an atomic-force-microscope tip. In this paper, we propose and study a stochastic kinetic model of this unfolding process. Our model assumes that each immunoglobulin domain of titin is held together by six hydrogen bonds. The external force pulls on these bonds and(More)
Phenomenological kinetics (PK) is widely used in the study of the reaction rates in heterogeneous catalysis, and it is an important aid in reactor design. PK makes simplifying assumptions: It neglects the role of fluctuations, assumes that there is no correlation between the locations of the reactants on the surface, and considers the reacting mixture to be(More)
We study the binding of neutral silver clusters, Ag(n) (n=1-6), to the DNA bases adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and thymine (T) and the absorption spectra of the silver cluster-base complexes. Using density functional theory (DFT), we find that the clusters prefer to bind to the doubly bonded ring nitrogens and that binding to T is generally much(More)
The electrochemically active area of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is investigated using conductive probe atomic force microscopy (CP-AFM). A platinum-coated AFM tip is used as a nanoscale cathode in an operating PEMFC. We present results that show highly inhomogeneous distributions of conductive surface domains at several length scales. At(More)
Mixed metal sulfides containing combinations of W, Fe, Mo, Ni, and Ru were synthesized and screened for activity and stability for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in aqueous hydrobromic acid (HBr). Co- and Ni-substituted RuS(2) were identified as potentially active HER electrocatalysts by high-throughput screening (HTS), and the specific compositions(More)
It is widely believed that small gold clusters supported on an oxide surface and adsorbed at the site of an oxygen vacancy are negatively charged. It has been suggested that this negative charge helps a gold cluster adsorb oxygen and weakens the O-O bond to make oxidation reactions more efficient. Given the fact that an oxygen vacancy is electron rich and(More)
Experiments in which mass-selected gold clusters were deposited on a surface have found that the catalytic properties depend strongly on cluster size. However, these experiments have not established definitively that the clusters maintain their size after deposition. We report here work in which we deposit low kinetic energy, mass-selected Aun+ (n = 1-8)(More)