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Opioid receptors regulate neuronal activity by both pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms. We recently reported that the cloned delta-opioid receptor (DOR1) is primarily targeted to axons, suggesting a presynaptic role. In the present study we have studied the distribution and targeting of another opioid receptor, the mu-opioid receptor (MOR1), by raising(More)
The role of the mu-opioid receptor in immune function was investigated using mu-opioid receptor knockout mice (MOR-KO). Morphine modulation of several immune functions, including macrophage phagocytosis and macrophage secretion of TNF-alpha, was not observed in the MOR-KO animals, suggesting that these functions are mediated by the classical mu-opioid(More)
We have recently developed antisera which recognize epitopes of the cloned delta-opioid receptor (DOR; Dado et al., 1993). In the present report we have further characterized these antisera, and raised additional antisera in rats. We used these antisera to determine the distribution of DOR-like immunoreactivity (-Ll) in rat spinal cord and brainstem in(More)
To explore the mechanism by which morphine promotes the incidence of HIV infection, we evaluated the regulatory role of morphine on the interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) promoter in activated T cells from wild type and mu-opioid receptor knockout mice. Our results show that morphine inhibited anti-CD3/CD28-stimulated IFN-gamma promoter activity in a(More)
Cloning of multiple opioid receptors has presented opportunities to investigate the mechanisms of multiple opioid receptor signaling and the regulation of these signals. The subsequent identification of receptor gene structures has also provided opportunities to study the regulation of receptor gene expression and to manipulate the concentration of the gene(More)
The mu opioid receptor gene (MOR) was mutated in mice by a gene targeting procedure. In these MOR-knockout mice, the analgesic effects of morphine, its major metabolites, morphine-6-glucuronide (M-6-G) and morphine-6-ethereal sulfate (M-6-S), and endomorphin-2, as well as morphine-induced lethality, were drastically reduced, whereas the effects of DPDPE and(More)
Drug addiction has great social and economical implications. In order to resolve this problem, the molecular and cellular basis for drug addiction must be elucidated. For the past three decades, our research has focused on elucidating the molecular mechanisms behind morphine tolerance and dependence. Although there are many working hypotheses, it is our(More)
The influence of clonidine on the naloxone-induced withdrawal signs, escape attempts and precipitated shakes, was studied in morphine-dependent rats. Clonidine injected i.p. or intraventricularly (i. vent.) inhibited precipitated shakes and potentiated escape attempts induced by naloxone in morphine-dependent rats. Under pentobarbital anesthesia,(More)
The goal of the present study was to elucidate the relationship between cannabinoid and opioid systems in drug dependence. The CB(1) cannabinoid receptor antagonist SR 141716A precipitated both paw tremors and head shakes in four different mouse strains that were treated repeatedly with Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta(9)-THC). SR 141716A-precipitated(More)