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OBJECTIVE Alzheimer disease (AD) brains are deficient in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which regulates synaptic plasticity and memory. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are ∼22-nucleotide small noncoding RNAs that control a variety of physiological and disease processes. Here, we show that miR-206 regulates BDNF and memory function in AD mice. METHODS(More)
Genetic murine models play an important role in the study of human neurological disorders by providing accurate and experimentally accessible systems to study pathogenesis and to test potential therapeutic treatments. One of the most widely employed models of Huntington's disease (HD) is the R6/2 transgenic mouse. To characterize this model further, we have(More)
We demonstrate that the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor drug trichostatin A (TSA) reduces spinal cord inflammation, demyelination, neuronal and axonal loss and ameliorates disability in the relapsing phase of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model of multiple sclerosis (MS). TSA up-regulates antioxidant, anti-excitotoxicity and(More)
Huntington's disease (HD) is a fully penetrant autosomal-dominant inherited neurological disorder caused by expanded CAG repeats in the Huntingtin gene. Transcriptional dysfunction, excitotoxicity, and oxidative stress have all been proposed to play important roles in the pathogenesis of HD. This study was designed to explore the therapeutic potential of(More)
Caused by a polyglutamine expansion in the huntingtin protein, Huntington's disease leads to striatal degeneration via the transcriptional dysregulation of a number of genes, including those involved in mitochondrial biogenesis. Here we show that transglutaminase 2, which is upregulated in HD, exacerbates transcriptional dysregulation by acting as a(More)
Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder. Oxidative damage has been associated with pathological neuronal loss in HD. The therapeutic modulation of oxidative stress and mitochondrial function using low molecular weight compounds may be an important strategy for delaying the onset and slowing the progression of HD. In the(More)
Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) has been implicated in neuronal survival and death. However, the precise regulatory mechanisms involved in COX-2 function are unclear. In the present study we found that COX-2 is induced in response to glutathione depletion-induced oxidative stress in primary cortical neurons. Two proximal specific Sp1 and Sp3 binding sites are(More)
Mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) are prevalent causes of late-onset Parkinson's disease. Here, we show that LRRK2 binds to MAPK kinases (MKK) 3, 6, and 7, and that LRRK2 is able to phosphorylate MKK3, 6 and 7. Over-expression of LRRK2 and MKK6 increased the steady state levels of each protein beyond that observed with over-expression of(More)
Vitamin E is a generic term for tocopherols and tocotrienols. This work is based on our striking evidence that, in neuronal cells, nanomolar concentrations of alpha-tocotrienol, but not alpha-tocopherol, block glutamate-induced death by suppressing early activation of c-Src kinase (Sen, C. K., Khanna, S., Roy, S., and Packer, L. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275,(More)
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurological disorder characterized by selective degeneration of motor neurons throughout the central nervous systems. Non-cell autonomous damage induced by glial cells is linked to the selective susceptibility of motor neurons in ALS, but the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are not known. We found that(More)