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Huntington's disease (HD) is caused by an expansion of exonic CAG triplet repeats in the gene encoding the huntingtin protein (Htt), however, the means by which neurodegeneration occurs remains obscure. There is evidence that mutant Htt interacts with transcription factors leading to reduced histone acetylation. We report that administration of the histone(More)
We demonstrate that the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor drug trichostatin A (TSA) reduces spinal cord inflammation, demyelination, neuronal and axonal loss and ameliorates disability in the relapsing phase of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model of multiple sclerosis (MS). TSA up-regulates antioxidant, anti-excitotoxicity and(More)
The precise cause of neuronal death in Huntington's disease (HD) is unknown. Although no single specific protein-protein interaction of mutant huntingtin has emerged as the pathologic trigger, transcriptional dysfunction may contribute to the neurodegeneration observed in HD. Pharmacological treatment using the histone deacetylase inhibitor sodium butyrate(More)
Oxidative stress is believed to be an important mediator of neurodegeneration. However, the transcriptional pathways induced in neurons by oxidative stress that activate protective gene responses have yet to be fully delineated. We report that the transcription factor Sp1 is acetylated in response to oxidative stress in neurons. Histone deacetylase (HDAC)(More)
Multiple molecular defects trigger cell death in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Among these, altered transcriptional activity may perturb many cellular functions, leading to a cascade of secondary pathological effects. We showed that pharmacological treatment, using the histone deacetylase inhibitor sodium phenylbutyrate, significantly extended(More)
Genetic murine models play an important role in the study of human neurological disorders by providing accurate and experimentally accessible systems to study pathogenesis and to test potential therapeutic treatments. One of the most widely employed models of Huntington's disease (HD) is the R6/2 transgenic mouse. To characterize this model further, we have(More)
OBJECTIVE Alzheimer disease (AD) brains are deficient in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which regulates synaptic plasticity and memory. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are ∼22-nucleotide small noncoding RNAs that control a variety of physiological and disease processes. Here, we show that miR-206 regulates BDNF and memory function in AD mice. METHODS(More)
Neuronal cell death in response to oxidative stress may reflect the failure of endogenous adaptive mechanisms. However, the transcriptional activators induced by oxidative stress in neurons that trigger adaptive genetic responses have yet to be fully elucidated. We report that basal DNA binding of the zinc finger transcription factors Sp1 and Sp3 is(More)
L-Arginine is the only endogenous nitrogen-containing substrate of NO synthase (NOS), and it thus governs the production of NO during nervous system development as well as in disease states such as stroke, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, and HIV dementia. The "arginine paradox" refers to the dependence of cellular NO production on exogenous(More)
Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder. Oxidative damage has been associated with pathological neuronal loss in HD. The therapeutic modulation of oxidative stress and mitochondrial function using low molecular weight compounds may be an important strategy for delaying the onset and slowing the progression of HD. In the(More)