Learn More
Lignins are complex natural polymers resulting from oxidative coupling of, primarily, 4-hydroxyphenylpropanoids. An understanding of their nature is evolving as a result of detailed structural studies, recently aided by the availability of lignin-biosynthetic-pathway mutants and transgenics. The currently accepted theory is that the lignin polymer is formed(More)
NMR fingerprinting of the components of finely divided plant cell walls swelled in DMSO has been recently described. Cell wall gels, produced directly in the NMR tube with perdeutero-dimethylsulfoxide, allowed the acquisition of well resolved/dispersed 2D (13)C-(1)H correlated solution-state NMR spectra of the entire array of wall polymers, without the need(More)
Although finely divided ball-milled whole cell walls do not completely dissolve in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), they readily swell producing a gel. Solution-state two-dimensional (2D) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) of this gel, produced directly in the NMR tube, provides an interpretable structural fingerprint of the polysaccharide and lignin components of(More)
Recent advances in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technology have made it possible to rapidly screen plant material and discern whole cell wall information without the need to deconstruct and fractionate the plant cell wall. This approach can be used to improve our understanding of the biology of cell wall structure and biosynthesis, and as a tool to(More)
Laccases, as early as 1959, were proposed to catalyze the oxidative polymerization of monolignols. Genetic evidence in support of this hypothesis has been elusive due to functional redundancy of laccase genes. An Arabidopsis double mutant demonstrated the involvement of laccases in lignin biosynthesis. We previously identified a subset of laccase genes to(More)
Studying lignin-biosynthetic-pathway mutants and transgenics provides insights into plant responses to perturbations of the lignification system, and enhances our understanding of normal lignification. When enzymes late in the pathway are downregulated, significant changes in the composition and structure of lignin may result. NMR spectroscopy provides(More)
Xylan is the principal hemicellulose in the secondary cell walls of eudicots and in the primary and secondary cell walls of grasses and cereals. The biosynthesis of this important cell wall component has yet to be fully determined although a number of proteins have been shown to be required for xylan synthesis. To discover new genes involved in xylan(More)
Down-regulation of the gene encoding 4-coumarate 3-hydroxylase (C3H) in alfalfa massively but predictably increased the proportion of p-hydroxyphenyl (P) units relative to the normally dominant guaiacyl (G) and syringyl (S) units. Stem levels of up to approximately 65% P (from wild-type levels of approximately 1%) resulting from down-regulation of C3H were(More)
Peroxidases are heavily implicated in plant cell wall cross-linking reactions, altering the properties of the wall and impacting its utilization. Polysaccharide-polysaccharide cross-linking in grasses is achieved by dehydrodimerization of hydroxycinnamate-polysaccharide esters; a complex array of hydroxycinnamic acid dehydrodimers are released by(More)
Lignin is a major component of plant secondary cell walls. Here we describe caffeoyl shikimate esterase (CSE) as an enzyme central to the lignin biosynthetic pathway. Arabidopsis thaliana cse mutants deposit less lignin than do wild-type plants, and the remaining lignin is enriched in p-hydroxyphenyl units. Phenolic metabolite profiling identified(More)