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ClC proteins are a family of chloride channels and transporters that are found in a wide variety of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell types. The mammalian voltage-gated chloride channel ClC-1 is important for controlling the electrical excitability of skeletal muscle. Reduced excitability of muscle cells during metabolic stress can protect cells from(More)
Ginkgolides are potent blockers of the glycine receptor Cl- channel (GlyR) pore. We sought to identify their binding sites by comparing the effects of ginkgolides A, B and C and bilobalide on alpha1, alpha2, alpha1beta and alpha2beta GlyRs. Bilobalide sensitivity was drastically reduced by incorporation of the beta subunit. In contrast, the sensitivities to(More)
The 5-hydroxytryptamine type-3 receptor antagonist tropisetron is in clinical use as an anti-emetic drug. This compound also exerts both potentiating and inhibitory effects on the glycine receptor chloride channel. The inhibitory effects occur at micromolar concentrations, whereas the potentiating effects are shown here to occur at femtomolar concentrations(More)
Fish-like calcitonins (CTs), such as salmon CT (sCT), are widely used clinically in the treatment of bone-related disorders; however, the molecular basis for CT binding to its receptor, a class II G protein-coupled receptor, is not well defined. In this study we have used photoaffinity labeling to identify proximity sites between CT and its receptor. Two(More)
PDE4 inhibitors have been identified as therapeutic targets for a variety of conditions, particularly inflammatory diseases. We have serendipitously identified a novel class of phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitor during a study to discover antagonists of the parathyroid hormone receptor. X-ray crystallographic studies of PDE4D2 complexed to four potent(More)
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