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The transition from a normal cell to a neoplastic cell is a complex process and involves both genetic and epigenetic changes. The process of carcinogenesis begins when the DNA is damaged, which then leads to a cascade of events leading to the development of a tumor. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation causes DNA damage, inflammation, erythema, sunburn,(More)
We examined the effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation on the time course for induction of sunburn (apoptotic) cells and expression of proteins known to be associated with growth arrest and apoptosis in SKH-hr1 mouse skin. Mice were irradiated with a single dose (2.5 kJ/m(2)) of UV from Kodacel-filtered (290-400 nm) FS40 sunlamps and the skin tissues were(More)
The p53 tumor suppressor gene and gene product are among the most diverse and complex been shown to have a direct correlation with cancer development and have been shown to occur in nearly 50% of all cancers. p53 mutations are particularly common in skin cancers and UV irradiation has been shown to be a primary cause of specific 'signature' mutations that(More)
A recessive temperature-sensitive mutation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been isolated and shown to cause an increase in ploidy in both haploids and diploids. Genetic analysis revealed that the strain carrying the mutation was an aa diploid, although MNNG mutagenesis had been done on an a haploid strain. When the mutant strain was crossed with an alpha(More)
Chronic exposure to UV radiation (UVR), especially in the UVA (315-400 nm) and UVB (280-315 nm) spectrum of sunlight, is the major risk factor for the development of nonmelanoma skin cancer. UVR is a complete carcinogen, which both initiates and promotes carcinogenesis. We found that protein kinase C epsilon (PKCepsilon), a member of the(More)
We hypothesized that a substantial portion of the mutagenic alterations produced in the basal layer of human skin by sunlight are induced by wavelengths in the UVA range. Using laser capture microdissection we examined separately basal and suprabasal keratinocytes from human skin squamous cell carcinomas and premalignant solar keratosis for both UVA- and(More)
Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation present in sunlight is an environmental human carcinogen. The toxic effects of UV from natural sunlight and therapeutic artificial lamps are a major concern for human health. The major acute effects of UV irradiation on normal human skin comprise sunburn inflammation (erythema), tanning, and local or systemic immunosuppression.(More)
The ultraviolet radiation present in sunlight is immune suppressive. Recently we showed that solar-simulated ultraviolet radiation (ultraviolet A + B; 295-400 nm), applied after immunization, suppressed immunologic memory and the elicitation of delayed-type hypersensitivity to the common opportunistic pathogen, Candida albicans. Further, we found that(More)
DNA-damaged cells can either repair the DNA or be eliminated through a homeostatic control mechanism termed "cellular proofreading." Elimination of DNA-damaged cells after ultraviolet radiation (UVR) through sunburn cell (apoptotic keratinocyte) formation is thought to be pivotal for the removal of precancerous skin cells. Sunburn cell formation was found(More)