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The ultraviolet (UV) radiation present in sunlight is immune-suppressive. Recently we showed that solar-simulated UV radiation (UVA + UVB; 295-400 nm), applied after immunization, suppressed immunological memory and the elicitation of delayed-type hypersensitivity to the common opportunistic pathogen, Candida albicans. Further, we found that wavelengths in(More)
DNA-damaged cells can either repair the DNA or be eliminated through a homeostatic control mechanism termed "cellular proofreading." Elimination of DNA-damaged cells after ultraviolet radiation (UVR) through sunburn cell (apoptotic keratinocyte) formation is thought to be pivotal for the removal of precancerous skin cells. Sunburn cell formation was found(More)
The ultraviolet radiation present in sunlight is the primary cause of nonmelanoma skin cancer and has been implicated in the development of cutaneous malignant melanoma. In addition, ultraviolet is immune suppressive and the suppression induced by ultraviolet radiation has been identified as a risk factor for skin cancer induction. Ultraviolet also(More)
Exposure to UV radiation has long been associated with the development of skin cancers. To identify the molecular targets in UV carcinogenesis, we analyzed 11 UV-induced murine skin cancers for mutations in the p53 tumor suppressor gene and found a 100% incidence rate. Such a high frequency of p53 mutations is unprecedented and suggests that this gene plays(More)
The ultraviolet radiation present in sunlight is immune suppressive. Recently we showed that solar-simulated ultraviolet radiation (ultraviolet A + B; 295-400 nm), applied after immunization, suppressed immunologic memory and the elicitation of delayed-type hypersensitivity to the common opportunistic pathogen, Candida albicans. Further, we found that(More)
The numbers of ultraviolet light (UV)-induced pyrimidine dimers in the DNA of neonatal BALB/c mouse skin were measured by assessing the sensitivity of the DNA to Micrococcus luteus UV endonuclease. Irradiation of neonatal BALB/c mice with FS40 sunlamps caused a dose-dependent induction of endonuclease-sensitive sites (pyrimidine dimers) in DNA extracted(More)
One of the major targets for breast cancer therapy is the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and related receptors, which signal via different signal transduction pathways including the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. This study determined whether there is a correlation between EGFR/HER2 status and MAPK (ERK1/2) phosphorylation in(More)
The cellular and molecular events that contribute to the development of UV-induced skin cancer is a complex process involving at least two distinct pathways that interact or converge to cause skin cancer (Figure 1). One pathway involves the action of UV on target cells (keratinocytes) for neoplastic transformation, and the other involves the effects of UV(More)
The relationship between nitric oxide synthase II (NOS II) inducibility and the metastatic ability of UV-2237 murine fibrosarcoma cells was determined. Highly metastatic cells survived to produce numerous lung metastases after i.v. injection in syngeneic C3H/HeN mice, whereas poorly metastatic cells did not. Highly metastatic clones exhibited higher levels(More)