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Biotransformation of 20(S)-protopanaxatriol (1) by the fungus Mucor spinosus AS 3.3450 gave 10 metabolites (2-10), of which 2-5 were previously known. On the basis of NMR and MS analyses, structures 6-10 were established as 12-oxo-23beta-hydroxyl-20(S)-protopanaxatriol (6), 20S,24R-epoxy-dammaran-3beta,6alpha,25-triol-12-one (7),(More)
A method incorporating high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with electrospray ionization and tandem mass spectrometry, with parallel analysis by HPLC with UV detection using a diode-array detector, was developed for the qualitative characterization of flavonoids in D. odorifera. Twenty-three flavonoids, including six isoflavones, six neoflavones,(More)
Of 49 microbial strains screened for their capabilities to transform ginsenoside Rb1, Rhizopus stolonifer and Curvularia lunata produced four key metabolites: 3-O-[β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1,2)-β-d-glucopyranosyl]- 20-O-[β-d-glucopyranosyl]-3β,12β, 20(S)-trihydroxydammar-24-ene (1), 3-O-[β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1,2)-β-d-(More)
Steroidal saponins, 1, 2, 3 and 4, were isolated from the BuOH extract of Smilax china L., along with 13 known compounds, 5-17. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of MS, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analyses and chemical evidence. In the bioassay tests, all compounds showed inhibitory effects on cyclooxygenase-2 enzyme (COX-2) activities at final(More)
Biotransformation of natural products has great potential for producing new drugs and could provide in vitro models of mammalian metabolism. Microbial transformation of the cytotoxic steroid cinobufagin was investigated. Cinobufagin could be specifically hydroxylated at the 12 beta-position by the fungus Alternaria alternata. Six products from a scaled-up(More)
BACKGROUND T helper (Th) 17 and regulatory T (Treg) cells play a critical role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) disease. Bu Shen Yi Sui Capsule (BSYSC), a traditional Chinese medicine formula, has been used clinically for the treatment of MS patients in China. METHODS To evaluate the neuroprotective effects and the underlying mechanisms of(More)
ChanSu (toad venom) is a traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of serious liver and gastric cancers. The major cytotoxic compounds in ChanSu are bufadienolides. In this paper, a strategy combining qualitative LC/MS analysis and quantitative HPLC determination of major bufadienolides was used for global quality control of ChanSu crude drug. Majority(More)
Glycyrrhetinic acid (GA; 1) is one of the major constituents of a traditional Chinese medicine, the roots of Glycyrrhiza uralensis, called Gancao in Chinese. In the present paper, the biotransformation of GA by Mucor polymorphosporus (AS 3.3443) was investigated and eight metabolites were obtained. Based on their chemical and spectral data, the structures(More)
Biotransformation of 20(S)-protopanaxadiol (1) by the fungus Mucor spinosus AS 3.3450 yielded eight metabolites (2-9). On the basis of NMR and MS analyses, the metabolites were identified as 12-oxo-15alpha,27-dihydroxyl-20(S)-protopanaxadiol (2), 12-oxo-7beta,11alpha,28-trihydroxyl-20(S)-protopanaxadiol (3), 12-oxo-7beta,28-dihydroxyl-20(S)-protopanaxadiol(More)
Many flavonoids extracted from nature plants have been reported to exert antidepressant-like effect in animal studies. The present study was designed to observe the effects of liquiritin, a flavone compound derived from Glycyrrhiza uralensis, on the behaviors of chronic variable stress induced depression model rats and to explore the possible association(More)