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One of the key scalability challenges of on-chip coherence in a multicore chip is the coherence directory, which provides information on sharing of cache blocks. Shadow tags that duplicate entire private cache tag arrays are widely used to minimize area overhead, but require an energy-intensive associative search to obtain the sharing information. Recent(More)
An important challenge in multicore processors is the maintenance of cache coherence in a scalable manner. Directory-based protocols save bandwidth and achieve scalability by associating information about sharer cores with every cache block. As the number of cores and cache sizes increase, the directory itself adds significant area and energy overheads. In(More)
The fixed geometries of current cache designs do not adapt to the working set requirements of modern applications, causing significant inefficiency. The short block lifetimes and moderate spatial locality exhibited by many applications result in only a few words in the block being touched prior to eviction. Unused words occupy between 17 -- 80% of a 64K L1(More)
State-of-the-art multiprocessor cache hierarchies propagate the use of a fixed granularity in the cache organization to the design of the coherence protocol. Unfortunately, the fixed granularity, generally chosen to match average spatial locality across a range of applications, not only results in wasted bandwidth to serve an individual thread's access(More)
Monascus pigments (MPs) have been used as food colorants for several centuries in Asian countries. However, MP biosynthesis pathway is still a controversy, and only few related genes have been reported. In this study, the function of MpigE, a gene involved in MP biosynthesis in Monascus ruber M7, was analyzed. The results revealed that the disruption,(More)
This paper proposes to take the age at which a scientist achieved his first success as his famous-becoming age; uses a statistical method to obtaine the optimum age of scientists for making scientific discoveries; uses the same to find the experiential formula that explains the relationship between the number of scientific achievement and the number of(More)
With the construction in military-depth information, military information system's security questions have become more prominent, and caused a number of serious security threats to the system. This paper focuses on analyzing the network attacks, communication protocol attacks and other security problems which the military information systems may face, and(More)
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