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The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) has attracted substantial attention because of its involvement in a variety of diseases, such as cancer, cardiac hypertrophy, diabetes and obesity. Current knowledge indicates that mTOR functions as two distinct multiprotein complexes, mTORC1 and mTORC2. mTORC1 phosphorylates p70 S6 kinase (S6K1) and eukaryotic(More)
Cadmium (Cd), a highly toxic environmental pollutant, induces neurodegenerative diseases. Recently we have demonstrated that Cd induces neuronal apoptosis in part through activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. However, the underlying mechanism is unknown. Here we show that Cd induces the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS)(More)
Cadmium (Cd), a toxic environmental contaminant, induces oxidative stress, leading to neurodegenerative disorders. Recently we have demonstrated that Cd induces neuronal apoptosis in part by activation of the mitogen-activated protein kineses (MAPK) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways. However, the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Here we(More)
Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), an orange-yellow component of turmeric or curry powder, is a polyphenol natural product isolated from the rhizome of the plant Curcuma longa. For centuries, curcumin has been used in some medicinal preparation or used as a food-coloring agent. In recent years, extensive in vitro and in vivo studies suggested curcumin has(More)
Cryptotanshinone (CPT), a natural compound isolated from the plant Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, is a potential anticancer agent. However, the underlying mechanism is not well understood. Here, we show that CPT induced caspase-independent cell death in human tumor cells (Rh30, DU145, and MCF-7). Besides downregulating antiapoptotic protein expression of(More)
Ciclopirox olamine (CPX) is a synthetic antifungal agent clinically used to treat mycoses of the skin and nails. Here, we show that CPX inhibited tumor growth in human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 xenografts. To unveil the underlying mechanism, we further studied the antitumor activity of CPX in cell culture. The results indicate that CPX inhibited cell(More)
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) cause perturbations in immune systems and limit the application of CNTs in biomedicine. Here we demonstrate that a surface chemistry modification on multiwalled CNTs (MWCNTs) reduces their immune perturbations in mice and in macrophages. The modified MWCNTs change their preferred binding pattern from mannose receptor to scavenger(More)
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) functions in cells at least as two complexes, mTORC1 and mTORC2. Intensive studies have focused on the roles of mTOR in the regulation of cell proliferation, growth, and survival. Recently we found that rapamycin inhibits type I insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1)-stimulated lamellipodia formation and cell motility,(More)
OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and tolerability of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) or NMO spectrum disorder (NMOSD) in western China. METHODS We enrolled 90 patients with NMO or NMOSD who had received MMF between January 1, 2010, and June 15, 2015. RESULTS Of 90 patients, 62 (4 men and 58 women;(More)
Segmentation decomposes a network with complex and irregular shape into a set of subnetworks, each under a simple boundary condition without bottlenecks. It has a wide spectrum of applications in routing, coverage, localization, backbone construction and maintenance, and in-network data centric storage and retrieval. To our best knowledge, this is the first(More)