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Cadmium (Cd), a toxic environmental contaminant, induces oxidative stress, leading to neurodegenerative disorders. Recently we have demonstrated that Cd induces neuronal apoptosis in part by activation of the mitogen-activated protein kineses (MAPK) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways. However, the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Here we(More)
—Compared with its 2D counterpart, the scalability problem is greatly exacerbated in a 3D wireless sensor network. In this paper, we propose a scalable routing algorithm, dubbed Bubble Routing. It preprocesses global knowledge via a distributed algorithm, such that a node only needs to store a small constant information to make correct and efficient local(More)
—This research focuses on distributed and localized algorithms for precise boundary detection in 3D wireless networks. Our objectives are in two folds. First, we aim to identify the nodes on the boundaries of a 3D network, which serve as a key attribute that characterizes the network, especially in such geographic exploration tasks as terrain and underwater(More)
Oxidative stress results in apoptosis of neuronal cells, leading to neurodegenerative disorders. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains to be elucidated. Here, we show that hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), a major oxidant generated when oxidative stress occurs, induced apoptosis of neuronal cells (PC12 cells and primary murine neurons), by(More)
—Triangulation serves as the basis for many geometry-based algorithms in wireless sensor networks. In this paper we propose a distributed algorithm that produces a triangulation for an arbitrary sensor network, with no constraints on communication model or granularity of the triangulation. We prove its correctness in 2D, and further extend it to sensor(More)
On-chip communication, including short, often-multicast, latency-critical coherence and synchronization messages, and long, unicast, throughput-sensitive data transfers, limits the power efficiency and performance scalability of many-core chip-multiprocessor systems. This article analyzes on-chip communication challenges and studies the characteristics of(More)
—In this work we develop a distributed boundary detection algorithm, dubbed Coconut, for 3D wireless sensor networks. It first constructs a tetrahedral structure to delineate the approximate geometry of the 3D sensor network, producing a set of " sealed " triangular boundary surfaces for separating non-boundary nodes and boundary node candidates. The former(More)
Ciclopirox olamine (CPX), a fungicide, has been demonstrated as a potential anticancer agent. However, the underlying anticancer mechanism is not well understood. Here, we found that CPX induced autophagy in human rhabdomyosarcoma (Rh30 and RD) cells. It appeared that CPX-induced autophagy was attributed to induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), as(More)
Serine/threonine (Ser/Thr) protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) has been implicated as a novel component of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. Recently we have demonstrated that mTOR regulates cell motility in part through p70 S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) pathways. Little is(More)