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In the inferior colliculus (IC), GABAergic inhibition mediated by GABA(A) receptors has been shown to play a significant role in regulating physiological responses, but little is known about the physiological role of GABA(B) receptors in IC neurons. In the present study, we used whole-cell patch clamp recording in vitro to investigate the effects of(More)
Software product line engineering (SPLE) takes advantage of the commonalities and predicts variabilities among members of a family to create efficient means of producing those members. Different approaches use different methods for defining the product line and producing members of the product line. We describe and demonstrate through a case study the FAST(More)
Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) is a safety-analysis technique that has been recently extended to accommodate product-line engineering for critical domains. This paper describes a tool-supported approach to integrate product-line FTA into AADL (Architecture Analysis and Design Language) models and associated AADL Error Models of a product line. With concrete(More)
The inferior colliculus (IC) is a major center for neural integration in the auditory pathway. The IC processes inputs from the lower brainstem as well as from higher centers in the auditory system. To understand cellular mechanisms of IC neurons in auditory processing, we investigated physiological characteristics of the rebound depolarization (RD)(More)
Whole-cell patch clamp recordings were made from ICC neurons in brain slices of 9-16 day old rats. Postsynaptic currents were evoked by electrical stimulation of the lemniscal inputs. Excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) were isolated pharmacologically by blocking GABA(A) and glycine receptors. EPSCs were further dissected into AMPA and NMDA(More)
Changes to safety-critical product lines can jeopardize the safety properties that they must ensure. Thus, evolving software product lines must consider the impact that changes to requirements may have on the existing systems and their safety. The contribution of this work is a systematic, tool-supported technique to support safe evolution of product-line(More)
Electromuscular incapacitating devices (EMDs), such as Tasers, deliver high current, short duration pulses that cause muscular contractions and temporarily incapacitate the human subject. Some reports suggest that EMDs can kill. To help answer the question, "Can the EMD directly cause ventricular fibrillation (VF)?", ten tests were conducted to measure the(More)
We address the problem of how to provide guarantees to a user that an automatically generated composition of independently developed web services meets the non-functional requirements (NFR). The user-specified NFR are in the form of hard constraints. We introduce an automata-based model for representing and reasoning about non-functional requirements for(More)
Designers of electromuscular incapacitation devices need to know efficacy. Which areas of nerve and muscle are stimulated and are these areas adequate to cause incapacitation? This paper focuses on efficacy, which used a torso-sized finite element model with a mesh of about 5 mm. To estimate the neuromuscular regions stimulated by the Taser X26,(More)
The maximum distance between the heart and a model Taser stimulation dart, called the dart-to-heart distance, at which the Taser can directly cause ventricular fibrillation (VF), was measured in pigs. A 9-mm-long blunt probe was advanced snugly through the surrounding tissues toward the heart. Five animals [pig mass=61.2+/-6.23 standard deviation (SD) kg](More)