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In this paper, a generic rule-base inference methodology using the evidential reasoning (RIMER) approach is proposed. Existing knowledge-base structures are first examined, and knowledge representation schemes under uncertainty are then briefly analyzed. Based on this analysis, a new knowledge representation scheme in a rule base is proposed using a belief(More)
The dose-limiting side effect of the common colon cancer chemotherapeutic CPT-11 is severe diarrhea caused by symbiotic bacterial β-glucuronidases that reactivate the drug in the gut. We sought to target these enzymes without killing the commensal bacteria essential for human health. Potent bacterial β-glucuronidase inhibitors were identified by(More)
Exposure to indoor air pollution from household energy use depends on fuel, stove, housing characteristics, and stove use behavior. We monitored three important indoor air pollutants-respirable particles (RPM), carbon monoxide (CO), and sulfur dioxide (SO2)-for a total of 457 household-days in four poor provinces in China (Gansu, 129 household-days;(More)
BACKGROUND Although behavioral risk factors are strongly associated with urinary tract infection (UTI) risk, the role of genetics in acquiring this disease is poorly understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS To test the hypothesis that polymorphisms in Toll-like receptor (TLR) pathway genes are associated with susceptibility to UTIs, we conducted a(More)
New strategies for the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are urgently needed. There is an increasing interest in using microRNAs (miRNAs) as biomarkers in diseases. In this study, we examined the expression of miR-21 in serum exosomes from patients with HCC or chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and investigated the potential clinical significance of(More)
PURPOSE Variations in biotransformation and elimination of microtubule-binding drugs are a major cause of unpredictable side effects during cancer therapy. Because the orphan receptor, pregnenolone X-receptor (PXR), coordinately regulates the expression of paclitaxel metabolizing and transport enzymes, controlling this process could improve therapeutic(More)
Myelofibrosis (MF), polycythemia vera (PV) and essential thrombocythemia (ET) are three classic BCR ABL fusion gene-negative chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). Though rare, it is important to understand the burden of illness of these disorders for public health planning, healthcare insurers and pharmaceutical manufacturers. Therefore, we have(More)
PURPOSE We examined the presence of the pregnane X receptor (PXR) and its effects on ovarian cancer cells after activation by its cognate ligand. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN SKOV-3 and OVCAR-8 ovarian carcinoma cells were analyzed for expression of PXR by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and Western blot. Human ovarian cancer tissue was also analyzed for(More)
Intestinal microbial metabolites are conjectured to affect mucosal integrity through an incompletely characterized mechanism. Here we showed that microbial-specific indoles regulated intestinal barrier function through the xenobiotic sensor, pregnane X receptor (PXR). Indole 3-propionic acid (IPA), in the context of indole, is a ligand for PXR in vivo, and(More)
Recent studies have demonstrated that mesenchymal stem cells could differentiate into germ cells under appropriate conditions. We sought to determine whether human umbilical cord Wharton's jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells (HUMSCs) could form germ cells in vitro. HUMSCs were induced to differentiate into germ cells in all-trans retinoic acid,(More)