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Interleukin-17 (IL-17) secreted by T helper 17 (Th17) cells is essential in the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). However, it remains unclear how IL-17-mediated signaling in different cellular compartments participates in the central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory process. We examined CNS inflammation in mice with specific(More)
Costimulation between T cells and APCs is required for adaptive immune responses. CD40, an important costimulatory molecule, is expressed on a variety of cell types, including macrophages and microglia. The aberrant expression of CD40 is implicated in diseases including multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and Alzheimer's disease, and inhibition of(More)
It is unknown how dendritic cells (DCs) become specialized as mucosal DCs and maintain intestinal homeostasis. We report that a subset of bone marrow cells freshly isolated from C57BL/6 mice express the retinoic acid (RA)-synthesizing enzyme aldehyde dehydrogenase family 1, subfamily A2 (ALDH1a2) and are capable of providing RA to DC precursors in the bone(More)
The type I interferons (IFNs), IFN-alpha and IFN-beta, are cytokines that have antiviral, antiproliferative, and immunomodulatory activities. Data are now emerging that suggest that type I IFNs are also important mediators of anti-inflammatory responses. These findings, largely driven by studies to explain the beneficial effects of IFN-beta in the treatment(More)
CD40 is expressed on various immune cells, including macrophages and microglia. Aberrant expression of CD40 is associated with autoimmune inflammatory diseases such as multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis. Interaction of Tolllike receptor-4 (TLR4) with the Gramnegative bacteria endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) results in the induction of an array(More)
TGF-beta, together with IL-6 and IL-21, promotes Th17 cell development. IL-6 and IL-21 induce activation of STAT3, which is crucial for Th17 cell differentiation, as well as the expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)3, a major negative feedback regulator of STAT3-activating cytokines that negatively regulates Th17 cells. However, it is still(More)
JAK-STAT signaling is involved in the regulation of cell survival, proliferation, and differentiation. JAK tyrosine kinases can be transiently activated by cytokines or growth factors in normal cells, whereas they become constitutively activated as a result of mutations that affect their function in tumors. Specifically, the JAK2V617F mutation is present in(More)
CD40 is expressed on various immune cells, including macrophages and microglia. Aberrant expression of CD40 is associated with autoimmune inflammatory diseases such as multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis. Interaction of Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) with the Gram-negative bacteria endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) results in the induction of an array(More)
Astrocytes have an important role in the regulation of inflammation within the central nervous system (CNS). In neuroinflammatory conditions such as multiple sclerosis, numerous cytokines and chemokines are elevated including IL-6, IL-17, and CCL20. IL-17 enhances IL-6 signaling and subsequent IL-6 expression in astrocytes. CCL20 is a CC motif chemokine(More)
Astrocytes have important physiological roles in CNS homeostasis and serve as a bridge between the CNS and immune system. IL-17 and IL-6 are important in many CNS disorders characterized by neuroinflammation. We examined the role of IL-17 on the IL-6 signaling cascade in primary astrocytes. IL-17 functioned in a synergistic manner with IL-6 to induce IL-6(More)