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OBJECTIVE Topiramate, valproate, propranolol, amitriptyline, and methysergide have been widely prescribed for migraine prophylaxis, but their mechanism or site of action is uncertain. Cortical spreading depression (CSD) has been implicated in migraine and as a headache trigger and can be evoked in experimental animals by electrical or chemical stimulation.(More)
Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is a propagating wave of neuronal and glial depolarization and has been implicated in disorders of neurovascular regulation such as stroke, head trauma, and migraine. In this study, we found that CSD alters blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability by activating brain MMPs. Beginning at 3-6 hours, MMP-9 levels increased(More)
VIF is one of the six accessory proteins of HIV-1. It has been shown to be necessary for the survival of HIV-1 in the human body and for the retention of viral infectivity. It is strongly expected that a new therapeutic strategy against HIV-1 infection could be realized by blocking the biological pathway to VIF. In this paper, a three-dimensional model of(More)
BACKGROUND MicroRNAs are stable and easy to detect in plasma. The plasma levels of microRNAs are often changed in disease conditions, including cancer. This makes circulating microRNAs a novel class of biomarkers for cancer diagnosis. Analyses of online microRNA data base revealed that expression level of three microRNAs, microRNA-24 (miR-24), microRNA-320a(More)
Traditional sentiment analysis mainly considers binary classifications of reviews, but in many real-world sentiment classification problems, nonbinary review ratings are more useful. This is especially true when consumers wish to compare two products, both of which are not negative. Previous work has addressed this problem by extracting various features(More)
The heart is a muscular organ with a wrapping, laminar structure embedded with neural and vascular networks, collagen fibrils, fibroblasts, and cardiac myocytes that facilitate contraction. We hypothesized that these non-muscle components may have functional benefit, serving as important structural alignment cues in inter- and intra-cellular organization of(More)
Engineered cardiac patches for treating damaged heart tissues after a heart attack are normally produced by seeding heart cells within three-dimensional porous biomaterial scaffolds. These biomaterials, which are usually made of either biological polymers such as alginate or synthetic polymers such as poly(lactic acid) (PLA), help cells organize into(More)
Despite a clear association between left ventricular (LV) mechanical dysfunction in end-stage heart failure and the incidence of arrhythmias, the majority of sudden cardiac deaths occur at earlier stages of disease development. The mechanisms by which structural, mechanical, and molecular alterations predispose to arrhythmias at the tissue level before the(More)
OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to examine the effects of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase (SERCA2a) gene transfer in a swine heart failure (HF) model. BACKGROUND Reduced expression and activity of SERCA2a have been documented in HF. Prior studies have reported the beneficial effects of short-term SERCA2a overexpression in rodent models. However,(More)
Recent evidence shows that the auxiliary subunit KChIP2, which assembles with pore-forming Kv4-subunits, represents a new potential regulator of the cardiac calcium-independent transient outward potassium current (I(to)) density. In hypertrophy and heart failure, KChIP2 expression has been found to be significantly decreased. Our aim was to examine the role(More)