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Plants use ethylene gas as a signal to regulate myriad developmental processes and stress responses. The Arabidopsis EIN3 protein is a key transcription factor mediating ethylene-regulated gene expression and morphological responses. Here, we report that EIN3 protein levels rapidly increase in response to ethylene and this response requires several(More)
During the past decade, molecular genetic studies on the reference plant Arabidopsis have established a largely linear signal transduction pathway for the response to ethylene gas. The biochemical modes of action of many of the signaling components are still unresolved. During the past year, however, progress in several areas has been made on several(More)
Ethylene has been regarded as a stress hormone to regulate myriad stress responses. Salinity stress is one of the most serious abiotic stresses limiting plant growth and development. But how ethylene signaling is involved in plant response to salt stress is poorly understood. Here we showed that Arabidopsis plants pretreated with ethylene exhibited enhanced(More)
Cryptochromes are blue/ultraviolet-A light receptors that mediate various light responses in plants and animals. But the initial photochemical reaction of cryptochrome is still unclear. For example, although most photoreceptors are known to undergo light-dependent protein modification such as phosphorylation, no blue-light dependent phosphorylation has been(More)
Environmental changes strongly affect plant growth and development. Phytohormones, endogenous plant-made small molecules such as ethylene, regulate a wide range of processes throughout the lifetime of plants. The ability of plants to integrate external signals with endogenous regulatory pathways is vital for their survival. Ethylene has been found to(More)
The ability to switch from skotomorphogenesis to photomorphogenesis is essential for seedling development and plant survival. Recent studies revealed that COP1 and phytochrome-interacting factors (PIFs) are key regulators of this transition by repressing the photomorphogenic responses and/or maintaining the skotomorphogenic state of etiolated seedlings.(More)
Ethylene is a gaseous phytohormone that plays vital roles in plant growth and development. Previous studies uncovered EIN2 as an essential signal transducer linking ethylene perception on ER to transcriptional regulation in the nucleus through a "cleave and shuttle" model. In this study, we report another mechanism of EIN2-mediated ethylene signaling,(More)
Pathogen/microbe-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs/MAMPs) trigger plant immunity that forms the first line inducible defenses in plants. The regulatory mechanism of MAMP-triggered immunity, however, is poorly understood. Here, we show that Arabidopsis thaliana transcription factors ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3 (EIN3) and ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3-LIKE1 (EIL1),(More)
Gaussian functions are suitable for describing many processes in mathematics, science, and engineering, making them very useful in the fields of signal and image processing. For example, the random noise in a signal, induced by complicated physical factors, can be simply modeled with the Gaussian distribution according to the central limit theorem from the(More)
Plants have evolved sophisticated systems for adaptation to their natural habitat. In response to developmental and environmental cues, plants produce and perceive jasmonate (JA) signals, which induce degradation of JASMONATE-ZIM-Domain (JAZ) proteins and derepress the JAZ-repressed transcription factors to regulate diverse aspects of defense responses and(More)