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We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neural correlates of self-regulatory control across development in healthy individuals performing the Stroop interference task. Proper performance of the task requires the engagement of self-regulatory control to inhibit an automatized response (reading) in favor of another, less(More)
Findings from previous magnetic resonance imaging studies of sex differences in gray matter have been inconsistent, with some showing proportionally increased gray matter in women and some showing no differences between the sexes. Regional sex differences in gray matter thickness have not yet been mapped over the entire cortical surface in a large sample of(More)
CONTEXT Limbic portions of cortical-subcortical circuits are likely involved in the pathogenesis of Tourette syndrome (TS). They are anatomically, developmentally, neurochemically, and functionally related to the basal ganglia, and the basal ganglia are thought to produce the symptoms of tics, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and(More)
Several lines of evidence have implicated the existence of the brain's default network during passive or undirected mental states. Nevertheless, results on the emergence of the default network in very young pediatric subjects are lacking. Using resting functional magnetic resonance imaging in healthy pediatric subjects between 2 weeks and 2 years of age, we(More)
OBJECTIVE Disturbances in the maturation of neural systems that mediate self-regulatory processes may contribute to the development of Tourette's syndrome by releasing motor and vocal tics from regulatory control. The purpose of this study was to examine the age correlates of functional activity in neural circuits that subserve self-regulatory control in(More)
CONTEXT Limbic structures are implicated in the genesis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by the presence of mood and cognitive disturbances in affected individuals and by elevated rates of mood disorders in family members of probands with ADHD. OBJECTIVE To study the morphology of the hippocampus and amygdala in children with ADHD. (More)
The mature brain features high wiring efficiency for information transfer. However, the emerging process of such an efficient topology remains elusive. With resting state functional MRI and a large cohort of normal pediatric subjects (n = 147) imaged during a critical time period of brain development, 3 wk- to 2 yr-old, the temporal and spatial evolution of(More)
HIV associated dementia (HAD) is the most advanced stage of central nervous system disease caused by HIV infection. Previous studies have demonstrated that patients with HAD exhibit greater cerebral and basal ganglia atrophy than non-demented HIV+ (HND) patients. However, the extent to which white matter is affected in HAD patients compared to HND patients(More)
Very little is known about cortical development in the first years of life, a time of rapid cognitive development and risk for neurodevelopmental disorders. We studied regional cortical and subcortical gray matter volume growth in a group of 72 children who underwent magnetic resonance scanning after birth and at ages 1 and 2 years using a novel(More)
CONTEXT The basal ganglia and thalamus together connect in parallel closed-loop circuits with the cortex. Previous imaging studies have shown modifications of the basal ganglia and cortical targets in individuals with Tourette syndrome (TS), but less is known regarding the role of the thalamus in TS pathogenesis. OBJECTIVE To study the morphological(More)