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We propose that a nucleotide template-based mechanism facilitates the acquisition of the K65R mutation in subtype C human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Different patterns of DNA synthesis were observed using DNA templates from viruses of subtype B or C origin. When subtype C reverse transcriptase (RT) was employed to synthesize DNA from subtype C(More)
Research over the last few years has demonstrated the increasing role of microRNAs (miRNAs) as major regulators of gene expression in diverse cellular processes and diseases. Several viruses, particularly herpesviruses, also use the miRNA pathway of gene regulation by encoding their own miRNAs. Marek's disease (MD) is a widespread lymphomatous neoplastic(More)
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-encoded microRNA (miRNA) MiR-K12-11 was recently shown to be a functional ortholog of miR-155, a miRNA that plays a major role in lymphoid malignancies and the modulation of immune responses. Here we show that miR-M4, encoded by the highly oncogenic Marek's disease virus of chickens, shares common targets with miR-155(More)
Notwithstanding the well-characterised roles of a number of oncogenes in neoplastic transformation, microRNAs (miRNAs) are increasingly implicated in several human cancers. Discovery of miRNAs in several oncogenic herpesviruses such as KSHV has further highlighted the potential of virus-encoded miRNAs to contribute to their oncogenic capabilities.(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIM In recent years, a great interest has been dedicated to the development of noninvasive predictive models to substitute liver biopsy for fibrosis assessment and follow-up. Our aim was to provide a simpler model consisting of routine laboratory markers for predicting liver fibrosis in patients chronically infected with hepatitis B virus(More)
VP1, the putative virion-associated RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) can be guanylylated in vitro whereupon it becomes a primer for in vitro RNA synthesis [Virology 208 (1995) 19]. The role of a template or other virion polypeptides in the reaction is unknown. To shed light on this question, his-tagged(More)
MK-2048 represents a prototype second-generation integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI) developed with the goal of retaining activity against viruses containing mutations associated with resistance to first-generation INSTIs, raltegravir (RAL) and elvitegravir (EVG). Here, we report the identification of mutations (G118R and E138K) which confer(More)
It is controversial whether the ClC-3 protein, which is one of the voltage-dependent chloride channel ClC family members, is a candidate for the volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying (VSOR) Cl(-) channel per se or its regulator. Here, for the first time, we examined the single-channel properties of the VSOR Cl(-) channel in ventricular myocytes isolated(More)
ATP and NADPH are two important cofactors for production of terpenoids compounds. Here we have constructed and optimized β-carotene synthetic pathway in Escherichia coli, followed by engineering central metabolic modules to increase ATP and NADPH supplies for improving β-carotene production. The whole β-carotene synthetic pathway was divided into five(More)