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Mushroom body (MB)-dependent olfactory learning in Drosophila provides a powerful model to investigate memory mechanisms. MBs integrate olfactory conditioned stimulus (CS) inputs with neuromodulatory reinforcement (unconditioned stimuli, US), which for aversive learning is thought to rely on dopaminergic (DA) signaling to DopR, a D1-like dopamine receptor(More)
The mammalian aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that mediates the toxic effects of dioxins and related compounds. Dioxins have been shown to cause a range of neurological defects, but the role of AHR during normal neuronal development is not known. Here we investigate the developmental functions of ahr-1, the(More)
C. elegans ahr-1 is orthologous to the mammalian aryl hydrocarbon receptor, and it functions as a transcription factor to regulate the development of certain neurons. Here, we describe the role of ahr-1 in a specific behavior: the aggregation of C. elegans on lawns of bacterial food. This behavior is modulated by nutritional cues and ambient oxygen levels,(More)
The brain represents sensory information in the coordinated activity of neuronal ensembles. Although the microcircuits underlying olfactory processing are well characterized in Drosophila, no studies to date have examined the encoding of odor identity by populations of neurons and related it to the odor specificity of olfactory behavior. Here we used(More)
MicroRNA (miRNA)-mediated gene regulation plays a key role in brain development and function. But there are few cases in which the roles of individual miRNAs have been elucidated in behaving animals. We report a miR-276a::DopR regulatory module in Drosophila that functions in distinct circuits for naive odor responses and conditioned odor memory. Drosophila(More)
Trace conditioning is valued as a simple experimental model to assess how the brain associates events that are discrete in time. Here, we adapted an olfactory trace conditioning procedure in Drosophila melanogaster by training fruit flies to avoid an odor that is followed by foot shock many seconds later. The molecular underpinnings of the learning are(More)
In this work, we have developed a highly sensitive and label-free DNAsensor for nucleic acid detection based on background noise reduction by exonuclease I (Exo I) and target-triggered cycled polymerization amplification. This DNAsensor consists of a long-tail probe, a short primer and polymerase. In the absence of the target, the long-tail probe and short(More)
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