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Despite its compactness, the human eye can easily focus on different distances by adjusting the shape of its lens with the help of ciliary muscles. In contrast, traditional man-made optical systems achieve focusing by physical displacement of the lenses used. But in recent years, advances in miniaturization technology have led to optical systems that no(More)
1 Blurred image derivatives Recall from the main text that the observed images, I 1 and I 2 , are blurred by each other's spatially-varying kernels: B 1 (x) = (I 1 * k 2)(x), (1) B 2 (x) = (I 2 * k 1)(x), (2) where k 1 and k 2 are the motion blur kernels at the corresponding points in I 1 and I 2 , respectively. In effect, we have B 1 (x) = [I 1 * k 2 (x +(More)
—Programmable autonomous micromixers and mi-cropumps have been designed and realized via a merger between MEMS and microfluidic tectonics (FT). Advantages lever-aged from both fabrication platforms allow for relatively simple and rapid fabrication of these microfluidic components. Nickel (Ni) microstructures, driven by an external rotating magnetic field,(More)
We present a microlens array consisting of multiple liquid-based tunable-focus microlenses omnidirectionally fabricated on a hemisphere, resulting in large field of view. Polymer bridge structure is formed between microlenses to reduce the stress and deformation in each lens structure. Each microlens in the array is formed via a water-oil interface at its(More)
Traditional optical systems utilize mechanical parts (e.g., gears, motors, and drivers) to allow adjustable focusing and magnification. Emerging variable-focus microlenses have exhibited the potential to miniaturize and advance optical systems without the need for mechanical parts, impacting significantly on a multitude of fields, such as cameras, [1](More)
We report on liquid-based tunable microlenses actuated by infrared ͑IR͒ light. Multiple micropost structures, made of IR light-responsive hydrogel with entrapped gold nanoparticles, are photopatterned around a lens aperture. The volumetric change in the hydrogel, controlled by IR light, regulates the curvature of a liquid-liquid interface forming the(More)
—We report on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mi-crolens arrays fabricated through liquid-phase photopolymer-ization and molding. The gist of this fabrication process is to form liquid menisci of variable radii of curvature at an array of apertures through pneumatic control, followed by photopoly-merization under ultraviolet radiance. The resultant polymerized(More)
In this paper we demonstrate, using a fabrication technique, liquid-phase photopolymerization (LP 3) for the relatively fast and low-cost integration of thick polymers and electroformed metal microstructures to develop a range of microfluidic components and systems. Liquid-phase UV-photosensitive polymers, similar to negative-tone photoresists, are used to(More)
We demonstrate three-dimensional (3D) surface profiling of the water-oil interface in a tunable liquid microlens using a Shack-Hartmann wave front sensor. The principles and the optical setup for achieving 3D surface measurements are presented and a hydrogel-actuated liquid lens was measured at different focal lengths. The 3D surface profiles are then used(More)