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Despite its compactness, the human eye can easily focus on different distances by adjusting the shape of its lens with the help of ciliary muscles. In contrast, traditional man-made optical systems achieve focusing by physical displacement of the lenses used. But in recent years, advances in miniaturization technology have led to optical systems that no(More)
—A silicon micromachining method has been developed to fabricate on-chip high-performance suspended spiral inductors. The spiral structure of an inductor was formed with polysilicon and was suspended over a 30-m-deep cavity in the silicon substrate beneath. Copper (Cu) was electrolessly plated onto the polysilicon spiral to achieve low resistance. The Cu(More)
This paper extends the classical warping-based optical flow method to achieve accurate flow in the presence of spatially-varying motion blur. Our idea is to parameter-ize the appearance of each frame as a function of both the pixel motion and the motion-induced blur. We search for the flows that best match two consecutive frames, which amounts to finding(More)
We report on liquid-based tunable-focus microlens arrays made of a flexible polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymer. Each microlens in the array is formed through an immiscible liquid–liquid interfacial meniscus. Here deionized water and silicone oil were used. The liquids were constrained in the PDMS structures fabricated through liquid-phase(More)
— This paper presents a fabrication process that integrates polysilicon surface micromachining and deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) bulk silicon micromachining. The process takes advantage of the design flexibility of polysilicon surface micromachining and the deep silicon structures possible with DRIE. As a demonstration, a torsional actuator driven by a(More)
We present a microlens array consisting of multiple liquid-based tunable-focus microlenses omnidirectionally fabricated on a hemisphere, resulting in large field of view. Polymer bridge structure is formed between microlenses to reduce the stress and deformation in each lens structure. Each microlens in the array is formed via a water-oil interface at its(More)
We report on liquid-based tunable microlenses actuated by infrared ͑IR͒ light. Multiple micropost structures, made of IR light-responsive hydrogel with entrapped gold nanoparticles, are photopatterned around a lens aperture. The volumetric change in the hydrogel, controlled by IR light, regulates the curvature of a liquid-liquid interface forming the(More)
In this paper we demonstrate, using a fabrication technique, liquid-phase photopolymerization (LP 3) for the relatively fast and low-cost integration of thick polymers and electroformed metal microstructures to develop a range of microfluidic components and systems. Liquid-phase UV-photosensitive polymers, similar to negative-tone photoresists, are used to(More)
In this paper we introduce the concept of local label de-scriptor, which is a concatenation of label histograms for each cell in a patch. Local label descriptors alleviate the label patch misalignment issue in combining structured label predictions for semantic image labeling. Given an input image, we solve for a label map whose local label descriptors can(More)