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Construction of a complex virus may involve a hierarchy of assembly elements. Here, we report the structure of the whole human adenovirus virion at 3.6 angstroms resolution by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), revealing in situ atomic models of three minor capsid proteins (IIIa, VIII, and IX), extensions of the (penton base and hexon) major capsid(More)
Three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction is the last and an essential step toward high-resolution structural determination in single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryoEM). We have implemented a new algorithm for reconstructing 3D structures of macromolecular complexes with icosahedral symmetry from cryoEM images. Icosahedral symmetry-adapted functions(More)
Adenovirus invades host cells by first binding to host receptors through a trimeric fiber, which contains three domains: a receptor-binding knob domain, a long flexible shaft domain, and a penton base-attachment tail domain. Although the structure of the knob domain associated with a portion of the shaft has been solved by X-ray crystallography, the in situ(More)
Adenovirus (Ad) cell attachment is initiated by the attachment of the fiber protein to a primary receptor (usually CAR or CD46). This event is followed by the engagement of the penton base protein with a secondary receptor (integrin) via its loop region, which contains an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) motif, to trigger virus internalization. To understand the(More)
Double-stranded RNA viruses in the family Reoviridae are capable of transcribing and capping nascent mRNA within an icosahedral viral capsid that remains intact throughout repeated transcription cycles. However, how the highly coordinated mRNA transcription and capping process is facilitated by viral capsid proteins is still unknown. Cypovirus provides a(More)
Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) viruses possess a segmented dsRNA genome and a number of RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRps) enclosed in a capsid. Until now, the precise structures of genomes and RdRps within the capsids have been unknown. Here we report the structures of RdRps and associated RNAs within nontranscribing and transcribing cypoviruses (NCPV and(More)
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a ubiquitous herpesvirus that causes birth defects in newborns and life-threatening complications in immunocompromised individuals. Among all human herpesviruses, HCMV contains a much larger dsDNA genome within a similarly-sized capsid compared to the others, and it was proposed to require pp150, a tegument protein only found(More)
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is distinct among members of the Herpesviridae family for having the largest dsDNA genome (230 kb). Packaging of large dsDNA genome is known to give rise to a highly pressurized viral capsid, but molecular interactions conducive to the formation of CMV capsid resistant to pressurization have not been described. Here, we report a cryo(More)
In this work, we developed a novel and biocompatible dual-modal nanoprobe based on single-phase amine-functionalized BaYF5:Yb/Er nanoparticles (NPs) for upconversion (UC) fluorescence and in vivo computed X-ray tomography (CT) bioimaging for the first time. High-quality water-soluble amine-functionalized BaYF5:Yb/Er NPs with an average size of 24 nm were(More)
Visualization of blood vessel of lung can improve the detection of the lung and pulmonary vascular diseases. However, research on visualization of blood vessel of lung using the new generation upconversion nanoprobes is still scarce. Herein, high quality hexagonal phase NaLuF4:Gd/Yb/Er nanorods were synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method through doping(More)