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Our laboratories recently completed SELEX experiments to isolate DNA sequences that most-strongly favor or disfavor nucleosome formation and positioning, from the entire mouse genome or from even more diverse pools of chemically synthetic random sequence DNA. Here we directly compare these selected natural and non-natural sequences. We find that the(More)
Positioned nucleosomes are believed to play important roles in transcriptional regulation and for the organization of chromatin in cell nuclei. Here, we have isolated the DNA segments in the mouse genome that form the most stable nucleosomes yet characterized. In separate molecules we find phased runs of three to four adenine nucleotides, extensive CA(More)
The Fur protein regulates the expression of a wide variety of iron-responsive genes; however, the interaction of this repressor with its cognate metal ion remains controversial. The iron-bound form of Fur has proved difficult to obtain, and conflicting results have been published using Mn(II) as a probe for in vitro DNA-binding studies. We report here that(More)
Nucleosomes, the building blocks of chromatin, are responsible for DNA packaging in eukaryotic cell nuclei. They play a structural role in genome condensation, and influence transcription and replication. Properties of the DNA sequence, such as curvature and flexibility, direct the location of nucleosomes. DNA sequences that position nucleosomes have been(More)
Nucleosomes, the fundamental building blocks of chromatin, play an architectural role in ensuring the integrity of the genome and act as a regulator of transcription. Intrinsic properties of the underlying DNA sequence, such as flexibility and intrinsic bending, direct the formation of nucleosomes. We have earlier identified genomic nucleosome-positioning(More)
Xanthine oxidase is a molybdenum-containing enzyme catalyzing the hydroxylation of a sp(2)-hybridized carbon in a broad range of aromatic heterocycles and aldehydes. Crystal structures of the bovine enzyme in complex with the physiological substrate hypoxanthine at 1.8 A resolution and the chemotherapeutic agent 6-mercaptopurine at 2.6 A resolution have(More)
Xanthine oxidase catalyzes the sequential hydroxylation of hypoxanthine to uric acid via xanthine as intermediate. Deposition of crystals of the catalytic product uric acid or its monosodium salt in human joints with accompanying joint inflammation is the major cause of gout. Natural flavonoids are attractive leads for rational design of preventive and(More)
Sugar aminotransferases (SATs) are an important class of tailoring enzymes that catalyze the 5'-pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-dependent stereo- and regiospecific installation of an amino group from an amino acid donor (typically L-Glu or L-Gln) to a corresponding ketosugar nucleotide acceptor. Herein we report the strategic structural study of two homologous C4(More)
Xanthine oxidoreductase is a ubiquitous cytoplasmic protein that catalyzes the final two steps in purine catabolism. We have previously investigated the catalytic mechanism of the enzyme by rapid reaction kinetics and x-ray crystallography using the poor substrate 2-hydroxy-6-methylpurine, focusing our attention on the orientation of substrate in the active(More)
The secreted glycoside hydrolase family 29 (GH29) α-L-fucosidase from plant pathogenic fungus Fusarium graminearum (FgFCO1) actively releases fucose from the xyloglucan fragment. We solved crystal structures of two active-site conformations, i.e. open and closed, of apoFgFCO1 and an open complex with product fucose at atomic resolution. The closed(More)