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Our laboratories recently completed SELEX experiments to isolate DNA sequences that most-strongly favor or disfavor nucleosome formation and positioning, from the entire mouse genome or from even more diverse pools of chemically synthetic random sequence DNA. Here we directly compare these selected natural and non-natural sequences. We find that the(More)
Newly developed light-up probes offer an attractive tool for PCR product detection. The light-up probe, which consists of a thiazole orange derivative linked to a peptide nucleic acid oligomer, hybridizes specifically to complementary nucleic acids. Upon hybridization the thiazole orange moiety interacts with the nucleic acid bases and the probe becomes(More)
The Fur protein regulates the expression of a wide variety of iron-responsive genes; however, the interaction of this repressor with its cognate metal ion remains controversial. The iron-bound form of Fur has proved difficult to obtain, and conflicting results have been published using Mn(II) as a probe for in vitro DNA-binding studies. We report here that(More)
Xanthine oxidase is a molybdenum-containing enzyme catalyzing the hydroxylation of a sp(2)-hybridized carbon in a broad range of aromatic heterocycles and aldehydes. Crystal structures of the bovine enzyme in complex with the physiological substrate hypoxanthine at 1.8 A resolution and the chemotherapeutic agent 6-mercaptopurine at 2.6 A resolution have(More)
Positioned nucleosomes are believed to play important roles in transcriptional regulation and for the organization of chromatin in cell nuclei. Here, we have isolated the DNA segments in the mouse genome that form the most stable nucleosomes yet characterized. In separate molecules we find phased runs of three to four adenine nucleotides, extensive CA(More)
Nucleosomes, the fundamental building blocks of chromatin, play an architectural role in ensuring the integrity of the genome and act as a regulator of transcription. Intrinsic properties of the underlying DNA sequence, such as flexibility and intrinsic bending, direct the formation of nucleosomes. We have earlier identified genomic nucleosome-positioning(More)
Nucleosomes, the building blocks of chromatin, are responsible for DNA packaging in eukaryotic cell nuclei. They play a structural role in genome condensation, and influence transcription and replication. Properties of the DNA sequence, such as curvature and flexibility, direct the location of nucleosomes. DNA sequences that position nucleosomes have been(More)
Xanthine oxidase catalyzes the sequential hydroxylation of hypoxanthine to uric acid via xanthine as intermediate. Deposition of crystals of the catalytic product uric acid or its monosodium salt in human joints with accompanying joint inflammation is the major cause of gout. Natural flavonoids are attractive leads for rational design of preventive and(More)
Xanthine oxidoreductase is a ubiquitous cytoplasmic protein that catalyzes the final two steps in purine catabolism. We have previously investigated the catalytic mechanism of the enzyme by rapid reaction kinetics and x-ray crystallography using the poor substrate 2-hydroxy-6-methylpurine, focusing our attention on the orientation of substrate in the active(More)
Xanthine oxidoreductase is a molybdenum-containing enzyme that catalyzes the hydroxylation reaction of sp(2)-hybridized carbon centers of a variety of substrates, including purines, aldehydes, and other heterocyclic compounds. The complex of arsenite-inhibited xanthine oxidase has been characterized previously by UV-vis, electron paramagnetic resonance, and(More)