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We determined the complete genome sequence of Clostridium difficile strain 630, a virulent and multidrug-resistant strain. Our analysis indicates that a large proportion (11%) of the genome consists of mobile genetic elements, mainly in the form of conjugative transposons. These mobile elements are putatively responsible for the acquisition by C. difficile(More)
Understanding the population structure and linkage disequilibrium in an association panel can effectively avoid spurious associations and improve the accuracy in association mapping. In this study, one hundred and fifty eight elite cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) germplasm from all over the world, which were genotyped with 212 whole genome-wide marker loci(More)
We have developed induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from a patient with X-linked chronic granulomatous disease (X-CGD), a defect of neutrophil microbicidal reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation resulting from gp91(phox) deficiency. We demonstrated that mature neutrophils differentiated from X-CGD iPSCs lack ROS production, reproducing the(More)
Lactoferrin (Lf) is naturally produced by the mammary gland, having biological functions of antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities. To investigate whether the Lf gene is associated with mastitis in dairy cattle, a DNA sequencing approach was used to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the gene. Three previously reported SNPs in the 5′(More)
Microbial expansion following faunal mass extinctions in Earth history can be studied by petrographic examination of microbialites (microbial crusts) or well-preserved organic-walled microbes. However, where preservation is poor, quantification of microbial communities can be problematic. We have circumvented this problem by adopting a lipid biomarker-based(More)
Embryo implantation involves the intimate interaction between an implantation-competent blastocyst and a receptive uterus, which occurs in a limited time period known as the window of implantation. Emerging evidence shows that defects originating during embryo implantation induce ripple effects with adverse consequences on later gestation events,(More)
Grass plants develop distinct inflorescences and spikelets that determine grain yields. However, the mechanisms underlying the specification of inflorescences and spikelets in grasses remain largely unknown. Here, we report the biological role of one SEPALLATA (SEP)-like gene, OsMADS34, in controlling the development of inflorescences and spikelets in rice(More)
Chromosome segregation in mitosis is orchestrated by dynamic interaction between spindle microtubules and the kinetochore, a multiprotein complex assembled onto centromeric DNA of the chromosome. Here we show that Zwint-1 is required and is sufficient for kinetochore localization of Zeste White 10 (ZW10) in HeLa cells. Zwint-1 specifies the kinetochore(More)
The performance of multiuser MIMO (MU-MIMO) downlink systems with preceding and decoding method by minimizing the total mean square error (TMSE) of all data streams of all users (T-MMSE) depends on the accuracy of the channel state information (CSI) available at the transmitter (CSIT). In this paper, a robust transmission scheme is proposed to suppress the(More)
Recent studies show that the human parathyroid calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) is expressed in human colon epithelium and functions to regulate epithelial proliferation and differentiation. In this study, we show that the cells of the colon crypt acquire CaSR expression as they differentiate and migrate towards the apex of the crypt. CaSR expression was(More)