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Mitochondria maintain tight regulation of inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM) permeability to sustain ATP production. Stressful events cause cellular calcium (Ca(2+)) dysregulation followed by rapid loss of IMM potential known as permeability transition (PT), which produces osmotic shifts, metabolic dysfunction, and cell death. The molecular identity of the(More)
Excessive inflammation occurs during infection and autoimmunity in mice lacking the alpha-subunit of the interleukin 27 (IL-27) receptor. The molecular mechanisms underlying this increased inflammation are incompletely understood. Here we report that IL-27 upregulated IL-10 in effector T cells that produced interferon-gamma and expressed the transcription(More)
Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) suppress matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity critical for extracellular matrix turnover associated with both physiologic and pathologic tissue remodeling. We demonstrate here that TIMP-2 abrogates angiogenic factor-induced endothelial cell proliferation in vitro and angiogenesis in vivo independent of MMP(More)
The molecular mechanism governing the response of plants to salinity stress, one of the most significant limiting factors for agriculture worldwide, has just started to be revealed. Here, we report AtSZF1 and AtSZF2, two closely related CCCH-type zinc finger proteins, involved in salt stress responses in Arabidopsis. The expression of AtSZF1 and AtSZF2 is(More)
Transcriptional regulation plays a central role in plant hormone signaling. At the core of transcriptional regulation is the Mediator, an evolutionarily conserved, multisubunit complex that serves as a bridge between gene-specific transcription factors and the RNA polymerase machinery to regulate transcription. Here, we report the action mechanisms of the(More)
As the economies of developing countries grow, and the purchasing power of their inhabitants increases, the pressure on the environment and natural resources will continue to increase. In the specific case of China, impressive economic growth during the last decades exemplifies this process. Specifically, we focus on how changing economic dynamics are(More)
We have previously shown that the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) RING-H2 E3 ligase RHA2a positively regulates abscisic acid (ABA) signaling during seed germination and postgerminative growth. Here, we report that RHA2b, the closest homolog of RHA2a, is also an active E3 ligase and plays an important role in ABA signaling. We show that RHA2b expression(More)
The reproducibility of conventional two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis can be improved using differential in-gel electrophoresis (DIGE), a new emerging technology for proteomic analysis. In DIGE, two pools of proteins are labeled with 1-(5-carboxypentyl)-1'-propylindocarbocyanine halide (Cy3) N-hydroxy-succinimidyl ester and(More)
Anti-apoptotic Bcl2 family proteins such as Bcl-x(L) protect cells from death by sequestering apoptotic molecules, but also contribute to normal neuronal function. We find in hippocampal neurons that Bcl-x(L) enhances the efficiency of energy metabolism. Our evidence indicates that Bcl-x(L)interacts directly with the β-subunit of the F(1)F(O) ATP synthase,(More)
Most Bursaphelenchus species are fungal feeding nematodes that colonize dead or dying trees. However, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, the pine wood nematode, is also a pathogen of trees and is the causal agent of pine wilt disease. B. xylophilus is native to North America and here it causes little damage to trees. Where it is introduced to new regions it causes(More)