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Spinal cord injuries often occur at the cervical level above the phrenic motor pools, which innervate the diaphragm. The effects of impaired breathing are a leading cause of death from spinal cord injuries, underscoring the importance of developing strategies to restore respiratory activity. Here we show that, after cervical spinal cord injury, the(More)
Serotonergic neurons possess an enhanced ability to regenerate or sprout after many types of injury. To understand the mechanisms that underlie their unusual properties, we used a combinatorial approach comparing the behavior of serotonergic and cortical axon tips over time in the same injury environment in vivo and to growth-promoting or growth-inhibitory(More)
In patients with bilateral cochlear implants (CIs), pairing matched interaural electrodes and stimulating them with the same frequency band is expected to facilitate binaural functions such as binaural fusion, localization, and spatial release from masking. Because clinical procedures typically do not include patient-specific interaural electrode pairing,(More)
In order to explain the mechanism of high meat quality in Laiwu pigs and investigate the relation between myosin heavy chains (MyHC) composition and meat quality, meat quality analysis was conducted and mRNA expression of MyHC I, IIa, IIx, IIb was quantified by real-time fluorescence PCR in longissimus muscle (LM) and semimembranous muscle of Laiwu pigs and(More)
In this paper we explore how to improve a sparse coding (SC) strategy that was successfully used to improve subjective speech perception in noisy environment in cochlear implants. On the basis of the existing unsupervised algorithm, we developed an enhanced supervised SC strategy, using the SC shrinkage (SCS) principle. The new algorithm is implemented at(More)
Although there are numerous single-channel noise reduction strategies to improve speech perception in noise, most of them improve speech quality but do not improve speech intelligibility, in circumstances where the noise and speech have similar frequency spectra. Current exceptions that may improve speech intelligibility are those that require a priori(More)
To improve the performance of cochlear implants (CI) in noisy environments, a novel strategy is proposed by combining two established algorithms. By combining the Kalman Expectation-Maximize (KEM) algorithm for noise reduction and the SPARSE algorithm for information selection, the new “enhanced SPARSE” strategy gains from the benefits of(More)
Hearing loss simulation (HLS) systems can provide normal hearing (NH) listeners with demonstrations of consequences of hearing impairment. An accurate simulation of hearing loss can be a valuable tool for developing signal processing strategies for hearing aids. This paper presents a novel HLS system which is based on a physiologically motivated compressive(More)
Non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) has increasingly been used as a tool in signal processing in the last years, but it has not been used in the cochlear implants (CIs). To improve the performance of CIs in noisy environments, a novel sparse strategy is proposed by applying NMF on envelopes of 22 channels. In the new algorithm, the noisy speech is first(More)