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Sparse coding provides a class of algorithms for finding succinct representations of stimuli; given only unlabeled input data, it discovers basis functions that capture higher-level features in the data. However, finding sparse codes remains a very difficult computational problem. In this paper, we present efficient sparse coding algorithms that are based(More)
There has been much interest in unsupervised learning of hierarchical generative models such as deep belief networks. Scaling such models to full-sized, high-dimensional images remains a difficult problem. To address this problem, we present the <i>convolutional deep belief network</i>, a hierarchical generative model which scales to realistic image sizes.(More)
Motivated in part by the hierarchical organization of the cortex, a number of algorithms have recently been proposed that try to learn hierarchical, or " deep, " structure from unlabeled data. While several authors have formally or informally compared their algorithms to computations performed in visual area V1 (and the cochlea), little attempt has been(More)
We present a new machine learning framework called "self-taught learning" for using unlabeled data in supervised classification tasks. We do not assume that the unlabeled data follows the same class labels or generative distribution as the labeled data. Thus, we would like to use a large number of unlabeled images (or audio samples, or text documents)(More)
Deep networks have been successfully applied to unsupervised feature learning for single modalities (e.g., text, images or audio). In this work, we propose a novel application of deep networks to learn features over multiple modalities. We present a series of tasks for multimodal learning and show how to train deep networks that learn features to address(More)
A great deal of research has focused on algorithms for learning features from unla-beled data. Indeed, much progress has been made on benchmark datasets like NORB and CIFAR by employing increasingly complex unsupervised learning algorithms and deep models. In this paper, however, we show that several simple factors, such as the number of hidden nodes in the(More)
Image classification has advanced significantly in recent years with the availability of large-scale image sets. However, fine-grained classification remains a major challenge due to the annotation cost of large numbers of fine-grained categories. This project shows that compelling classification performance can be achieved on such categories even without(More)
In recent years, deep learning approaches have gained significant interest as a way of building hierarchical representations from unlabeled data. However, to our knowledge, these deep learning approaches have not been extensively studied for auditory data. In this paper, we apply convolutional deep belief networks to audio data and empirically evaluate them(More)
Supervised deep learning has been successfully applied to many recognition problems. Although it can approximate a complex many-to-one function well when a large amount of training data is provided, it is still challenging to model complex structured output representations that effectively perform probabilistic inference and make diverse predictions. In(More)
—We consider the problem of detecting robotic grasps in an RGB-D view of a scene containing objects. In this work, we apply a deep learning approach to solve this problem, which avoids time-consuming hand-design of features. This presents two main challenges. First, we need to evaluate a huge number of candidate grasps. In order to make detection fast, as(More)