Learn More
Active adult neurogenesis occurs in discrete brain regions of all mammals and is widely regarded as a neuronal replacement mechanism. Whether adult-born neurons make unique contributions to brain functions is largely unknown. Here we systematically characterized synaptic plasticity of retrovirally labeled adult-born dentate granule cells at different stages(More)
Cytosine methylation is the major covalent modification of mammalian genomic DNA and plays important roles in transcriptional regulation. The molecular mechanism underlying the enzymatic removal of this epigenetic mark, however, remains elusive. Here, we show that 5-methylcytosine (5mC) hydroxylase TET1, by converting 5mCs to 5-hydroxymethylcytosines(More)
The mammalian brain exhibits diverse types of neural plasticity, including activity-dependent neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus. How transient activation of mature neurons leads to long-lasting modulation of adult neurogenesis is unknown. Here we identify Gadd45b as a neural activity-induced immediate early gene in mature hippocampal neurons. Mice with(More)
Adult neurogenesis, a process of generating functional neurons from adult neural precursors, occurs throughout life in restricted brain regions in mammals. The past decade has witnessed tremendous progress in addressing questions related to almost every aspect of adult neurogenesis in the mammalian brain. Here we review major advances in our understanding(More)
Cortical GABAergic inhibitory interneurons have crucial roles in the development and function of the cerebral cortex. In rodents, nearly all neocortical interneurons are generated from the subcortical ganglionic eminences. In humans and nonhuman primates, however, the developmental origin of neocortical GABAergic interneurons remains unclear. Here we show(More)
GABA, a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the adult brain, activates synaptic and extrasynaptic GABA(A) receptors, causing hyperpolarization of mature neurons. As in the embryonic nervous system, GABA depolarizes neural progenitors and immature neurons in the adult brain. Several recent studies have suggested that GABA has crucial roles in regulating(More)
Disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 (DISC1), a susceptibility gene for major mental illnesses, regulates multiple aspects of embryonic and adult neurogenesis. Here, we show that DISC1 suppression in newborn neurons of the adult hippocampus leads to overactivated signaling of AKT, another schizophrenia susceptibility gene. Mechanistically, DISC1 directly interacts(More)
During an investigation of the mechanisms through which the local environment controls the fate specification of adult neural stem cells, we discovered that adult astrocytes from hippocampus are capable of regulating neurogenesis by instructing the stem cells to adopt a neuronal fate. This role in fate specification was unexpected because, during(More)
Adult neurogenesis arises from neural stem cells within specialized niches. Neuronal activity and experience, presumably acting on this local niche, regulate multiple stages of adult neurogenesis, from neural progenitor proliferation to new neuron maturation, synaptic integration and survival. It is unknown whether local neuronal circuitry has a direct(More)