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Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of vision loss affecting tens of millions of elderly worldwide. Early AMD is characterized by the appearance of soft drusen, as well as pigmentary changes in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). These soft, confluent drusen can progress into two forms of advanced AMD: geographic atrophy (GA, or dry(More)
BACKGROUND Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is upregulated by hypoxia and is a major stimulatory factor for choroidal neovascularization. The upregulation of VEGF expression in response to hypoxia occurs through hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1), which is a transcription factor that regulates genes involved in the response to hypoxia. HIF-1 alpha(More)
The rs1061170T/C variant encoding the Y402H change in complement factor H (CFH) has been identified by genome-wide association studies as being significantly associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). However, the precise mechanism by which this CFH variant impacts the risk of AMD remains largely unknown. Oxidative stress plays an important(More)
Very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (VLC-PUFA)-containing glycerophospholipids are highly enriched in the retina; however, details regarding the specific synthesis and function of these highly unusual retinal glycerophospholipids are lacking. Elongation of very long chain fatty acids-4 (ELOVL4) has been identified as a fatty acid elongase protein(More)
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of registered blindness among the elderly and affects over 30 million people worldwide. It is well established that oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis play critical roles in pathogenesis of AMD. In advanced wet AMD, although, most of the severe vision loss is due to bleeding and(More)
There is currently no FDA-approved therapy for treating patients with geographic atrophy (GA), a late stage of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Cell transplantation has the potential to restore vision in these patients. This review discusses how recent advancement in induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells provides a promising therapy for GA treatment.(More)
Genome-wide association study (GWAS) has identified genetic variants in the promoter region of the high temperature requirement factor A1 (HTRA1) gene associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). As a secreted serine protease, HTRA1 has been reported to interact with members of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family and regulate their(More)
PURPOSE The advances in stem cell biology hold a great potential to treat retinal degeneration. Importantly, specific cell types can be generated efficiently with small molecules and maintained stably over numerous passages. Here, we investigated whether neural stem cell (NSC) derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) by small molecules can preserve(More)
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of vision loss affecting tens of millions of elderly worldwide. Early AMD includes soft drusen and pigmentary changes in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). As people age, such soft confluent drusen can progress into two forms of advanced AMD, geographic atrophy (GA, or dry AMD) or choroidal(More)
This paper aims to present a method to design the optimization steady state nonlinear controller of turbofan engine which is applicable for the whole flight envelop. First, based on the linear small deviation mathematical models of some representative operation points of turbofan in various flight conditions, the linear quadratic regulators of turbofan are(More)