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Atmospheric concentrations of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N(2)O) have increased significantly since pre-industrial times owing to anthropogenic perturbation of the global nitrogen cycle, with animal production being one of the main contributors. Grasslands cover about 20 per cent of the temperate land surface of the Earth and are widely used as(More)
Ecosystem structure, functioning and stability have been a focus of ecological and environmental sciences during the past two decades. The mechanisms underlying their relationship, however, are not well understood. Based on comprehensive studies in Inner Mongolia grassland, here we show that species-level stoichiometric homoeostasis was consistently(More)
Stoichiometric homeostasis, the degree to which an organism maintains its C:N:P ratios around a given species- or stage-specific value despite variation in the relative availabilities of elements in its resource supplies, is a key parameter in ecological stoichiometry. However, its regulation and role in affecting organismal and ecosystem processes is still(More)
Plant carbon : nitrogen : phosphorus (C:N:P) ratios are powerful indicators of diverse ecological processes. During plant development and growth, plant C:N:P stoichiometry responds to environmental conditions and physiological constraints. However, variations caused by effects of sampling (i.e. sampling date, leaf age and root size) often have been(More)
Limitation of disturbances, such as grazing and fire, is a key tool for nature reserve management and ecological restoration. While the role of these disturbances in shaping ecosystem structure and functioning has been intensively studied, less is known about the consequences of long-term prevention of grazing and fire. Based on a 31-year study, we show(More)
Higher aridity and more extreme rainfall events in drylands are predicted due to climate change. Yet, it is unclear how changing precipitation regimes may affect nitrogen (N) cycling, especially in areas with extremely high aridity. Here we investigate soil N isotopic values (δ(15)N) along a 3,200 km aridity gradient and reveal a hump-shaped relationship(More)
The growth rate hypothesis (GRH) proposes that higher growth rate (the rate of change in biomass per unit biomass, μ) is associated with higher P concentration and lower C:P and N:P ratios. However, the applicability of the GRH to vascular plants is not well-studied and few studies have been done on belowground biomass. Here we showed that, for aboveground,(More)
Plant-microbe interactions are crucial regulators of belowground nitrogen cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. However, such interactions have mostly been excluded from experimental setups for the investigation of gross inorganic N fluxes and N partitioning to plants and microorganisms. Ungulate grazing is likely to feed back on soil N fluxes, and hence it is(More)
Soil labile organic carbon (C) oxidation drives the flux of carbon dioxide (CO2) between soils and the atmosphere. However, the impact of grazing management and the contribution soil aggregate size classes (ASCs) to labile organic C from grassland soils is unclear. We evaluated the effects of grazing intensity and soil ASC on the soil labile organic C,(More)
In the modern design, most delivery systems for bone regeneration focus on a single growth factor (GF) or a simple mixture of multiple GFs, overlooking the coordination of proliferation and osteogenesis induced by various factors. In this study, core-shell microspheres with poly-l-lactide core-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) shell were fabricated, and two(More)