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We report 10 heterozygous mutations in the human insulin gene in 16 probands with neonatal diabetes. A combination of linkage and a candidate gene approach in a family with four diabetic members led to the identification of the initial INS gene mutation. The mutations are inherited in an autosomal dominant manner in this and two other small families whereas(More)
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have consistently implicated noncoding variation within the TCF7L2 locus with type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk. While this locus represents the strongest genetic determinant for T2D risk in humans, it remains unclear how these noncoding variants affect disease etiology. To test the hypothesis that the T2D-associated interval(More)
The hepatocyte nuclear factor 3/fork head homolog (HFH) proteins are an extensive family of transcription factors which share homology in the winged helix DNA binding domain. Members of the winged helix family have been implicated in cell fate determination during pattern formation, in organogenesis and in cell type-specific gene expression. In this study,(More)
Expression of the fos family of transcription factors is stimulated by growth factors that induce quiescent cells to reenter the cell cycle, but the cellular targets of the Fos family that regulate cell cycle reentry have not been identified. To address this issue, mice that lack two members of the fos family, c-fos and fosB, were derived. The fosB-/-(More)
Chronic exposure to cocaine leads to prominent, long-lasting changes in behavior that characterize a state of addiction. The striatum, including the nucleus accumbens and caudoputamen, is an important substrate for these actions. We previously have shown that long-lasting Fos-related proteins of 35-37 kDa are induced in the striatum by chronic cocaine(More)
Recent studies have established that vitamin D plays multiple biological roles beyond calcium metabolism; however, whether vitamin D is involved in energy metabolism is unknown. To address this question, we characterized the metabolic phenotypes of vitamin D receptor (VDR)-null mutant mice. Under a normocalcemic condition, VDR-null mice displayed less body(More)
Cells are programmed to die when critical signaling and metabolic pathways are disrupted. Inhibiting the type 2 ryanodine receptor (RyR2) in human and mouse pancreatic beta-cells markedly increased apoptosis. This mode of programmed cell death was not associated with robust caspase-3 activation prompting a search for an alternative mechanism. Increased(More)
Mutations in the preproinsulin protein that affect processing of preproinsulin to proinsulin or lead to misfolding of proinsulin are associated with diabetes. We examined the subcellular localization and secretion of 13 neonatal diabetes-associated human proinsulin proteins (A24D, G32R, G32S, L35P, C43G, G47V, F48C, G84R, R89C, G90C, C96Y, S101C and Y108C)(More)
The role of Fos-like transcription factors in neuronal and behavioral plasticity has remained elusive. Here we demonstrate that a Fos family member protein plays physiological roles in the neuronal, electrophysiological, and behavioral plasticity associated with repeated seizures. Repeated electroconvulsive seizures (ECS) induced isoforms of DeltaFosB in(More)
OBJECTIVES Short sleep confers a higher risk of obesity in humans. Restricted sleep increases appetite, promotes higher calorie intake from fat and carbohydrate sources, and induces insulin resistance. However, the effects of fragmented sleep (SF), such as occurs in sleep apnea, on body weight, metabolic rates, and adipose tissue distribution are unknown.(More)