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Insulin signaling in osteoblasts has been shown recently to contribute to whole-body glucose homeostasis in animals fed a normal diet; however, it is unknown whether bone contributes to the insulin resistance that develops in animals challenged by a high-fat diet (HFD). Here, we evaluated the consequences of osteoblast-specific overexpression of or loss of(More)
The majority of retinoid (vitamin A and its metabolites) present in the body of a healthy vertebrate is contained within lipid droplets present in the cytoplasm of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Two types of lipid droplets have been identified through histological analysis of HSCs within the liver: smaller droplets bounded by a unit membrane and larger(More)
In patients with type 2 non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), the biguanide, metformin, exerts its antihyperglycemic effect by improving insulin sensitivity, which is associated with decreased level of circulating free fatty acids (FFA). The flux of FFA and glycerol from adipose tissue to the blood stream primarily depends on the lipolysis of(More)
OBJECTIVE Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) contain a number of bioactive metabolites or their precursors including retinoids in their characteristic lipid droplets. The loss of lipid droplets and retinoids is a hallmark of HSC activation, but it remains unclear whether this loss promotes HSC activation, liver fibrogenesis or carcinogenesis. DESIGN(More)
CONTEXT Skeletal deterioration, leading to an increased risk of fracture, is a known complication of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). Yet plausible mechanisms to account for skeletal fragility in T2D have not been clearly established. OBJECTIVE The objective of the study was to determine whether bone material properties, as measured by reference point(More)
Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) is a critical independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. However, to date, no satisfactory strategies to prevent HHcy exist. Since homocysteine (Hcy) and endogenous H2S are both metabolites of sulfur-containing amino acids, we aimed to investigate whether a metabolic product of Hcy and H2S, may antagonize in part the(More)
Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) was recently suggested to be a possible endogenous gasotransmitter in physiological concentration. For the purpose of understanding its possible role in the regulation of the cardiovascular system, we explored the potential effect of H(2)S on the proliferation of cultured aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) of rats and(More)
Hypercortisolemia and glucocorticoid treatment cause elevated level of circulating free fatty acids (FFAs). The basis of this phenomenon has long been linked to the effect of glucocorticoids permitting and enhancing the adipose lipolysis response to various hormones. In this study, we demonstrate that glucocorticoids directly stimulate lipolysis in rat(More)
BACKGROUND Cardiac dysfunction with sepsis is associated with both inflammation and reduced fatty acid oxidation. We hypothesized that energy deprivation accounts for sepsis-related cardiac dysfunction. METHODS AND RESULTS Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administered to C57BL/6 mice (wild type) induced cardiac dysfunction and reduced fatty acid(More)
Chronic alcohol consumption is associated with fatty liver disease in mammals. The object of this study was to gain an understanding of dysregulated lipid metabolism in alcohol-fed C57BL/6 mice using a targeted lipidomic approach. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry was used to analyze several lipid classes, including free fatty acids, fatty(More)