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Heroin has been shown to elevate dopamine (DA) level. It is well known that an increase in DA oxidative metabolism leads to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, and thus, ROS have been frequently associated with neuronal cell death due to damage to carbohydrates, amino acids, phospholipids, and nucleic acids. This study investigated whether(More)
MOTIVATION Detecting drug-drug interaction (DDI) has become a vital part of public health safety. Therefore, using text mining techniques to extract DDIs from biomedical literature has received great attentions. However, this research is still at an early stage and its performance has much room to improve. RESULTS In this article, we present a syntax(More)
Gene named entity classification and recognition are crucial preliminary steps of text mining in biomedical literature. Machine learning based methods have been used in this area with great success. In most state-of-the-art systems, elaborately designed lexical features, such as words, n-grams, and morphology patterns, have played a central part. However,(More)
Protein-protein interactions play a key role in various aspects of the structural and functional organization of the cell. Knowledge about them unveils the molecular mechanisms of biological processes. However, the amount of biomedical literature regarding protein interactions is increasing rapidly and it is difficult for interaction database curators to(More)
Automatic query expansion technologies have been proven to be effective in many information retrieval tasks. Most existing approaches are based on the assumption that the most informative terms in top-retrieved documents can be viewed as context of the query and thus can be used for query expansion. One problem with these approaches is that some of the(More)
Extracting protein-protein interaction (PPI) from biomedical literature is an important task in biomedical text mining (BioTM). In this paper, we propose a hash subgraph pairwise (HSP) kernel-based approach for this task. The key to the novel kernel is to use the hierarchical hash labels to express the structural information of subgraphs in a linear time.(More)
OBJECTIVE Knowledge about protein-protein interactions (PPIs) unveils the molecular mechanisms of biological processes. The volume and content of published biomedical literature on protein interactions is expanding rapidly, making it increasingly difficult for interaction database administrators, responsible for content input and maintenance to detect and(More)