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Although the cellular mechanisms responsible for the pathogenesis of autism are not understood, a growing number of studies have suggested that localized inflammation of the central nervous system (CNS) may contribute to the development of autism. Recent evidence shows that IL-6 has a crucial role in the development and plasticity of CNS.(More)
Abnormal immune responses have been reported to be associated with autism. A number of studies showed that cytokines were increased in the blood, brain, and cerebrospinal fluid of autistic subjects. Elevated IL-6 in autistic brain has been a consistent finding. However, the mechanisms by which IL-6 may be involved in the pathogenesis of autism are not well(More)
Genistein is a specific inhibitor of protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) and is considered as a therapeutic candidate for various cancers. In this paper we investigate the effects of genistein on cell proliferation and differentiation in neuroblastoma (NB) cell lines and its possible mechanism of action. Genistein substantially inhibited the growth of five (N2A,(More)
Abnormal neuroimmune responses have been reported to be associated with autism and could be appropriate targets for pharmacologic intervention. Our previous studies showed that neuroimmune factor, interleukin (IL)-6, was significantly elevated in the fontal cortex and cerebellum of autistic subjects. The IL-6 overexpressing mice displayed several(More)
Recent studies suggest that one of the major pathways to the pathogenesis of autism is reduced cell migration. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) has an important role in neural migration, dendritic morphological characteristics, axonal branching, and synapse formation. The FAK-Src complex, activated by upstream reelin and integrin β1, can initiate a cascade of(More)
Although the pathogenic mechanisms that underlie autism are not well understood, there is evidence showing that metabotropic and ionotropic glutamate receptors are hyper-stimulated and the GABAergic system is hypo-stimulated in autism. Memantine is an uncompetitive antagonist of NMDA receptors and is widely prescribed for treatment of Alzheimer's disease(More)
Neural stem cells' transplantation has been proposed as a future therapy for spinal cord injury. The challenge is how to make proportionally more neural stem cells differentiate into spinal motor neurons. Recent reports reveal that microRNAs play an important role in regulating stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. The aim of this study was to compare(More)
The Ras/Raf/ERK1/2 signaling pathway controls many cellular responses such as cell proliferation, migration, differentiation, and death. In the nervous system, emerging evidence also points to a death-promoting role for ERK1/2 in both in vitro and in vivo models of neuronal death. Recent studies have suggested that abnormal apoptosis in the central nervous(More)
Autism is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairments in social interaction, deficits in verbal and non-verbal communication, and repetitive behavior and restricted interests. Emerging evidence suggests that aberrant neuroimmune responses may contribute to phenotypic deficits and could be appropriate targets for pharmacologic(More)
Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by abnormal reciprocal social interactions, communication deficits, and repetitive behaviors with restricted interests. However, the widely accepted biomarkers for autism are still lacking. In this study, we carried out a quantitative proteomic profiling study of cortical brain tissue from BTBR(More)