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Large amount of sludge has been a great trouble and raised significant concerns in China. This paper reviewed the current situation of sludge production, management, treatment and disposal in China. Total sludge production in China had an average annual growth of 13% from 2007 to 2013, and 6.25 million tons dry solids was produced in 2013. Per Capita sludge(More)
A structure-switching DNA optical biosensor for rapid on-site/in situ detection of heavy metal ions is reported. Mercury ions (Hg²⁺), highly toxic and ubiquitous pollutants, were selected as model target. In this system, fluorescence-labeled DNA containing T-T mismatch structure was introduced to bind with DNA probes immobilized onto the sensor surface. In(More)
A hapten-grafted graphene-based biosensor by integrating both the graphene nanosheets and immunoassay sensing technologies was developed for ultrasensitive homogeneous competitive immunoassay of small molecules. The structure of hapten-grafted graphene avoids the activity loss of biomolecules immobilized onto the graphene surface and is beneficial to(More)
Bisphenol A (BPA), a xenoestrogenic endocrine-disrupting chemical, is used in many consumer products worldwide and is widely detected in the environment and in food. Combining the advantages of evanescent wave fiber optic sensor and microfluidic technology, an all-fiber optofluidics-based bioassay platform (AFOB) was developed for the rapid immunoassay and(More)
A nanoprobe based on quantum-dot (QD) haptens was synthesized by conjugating carboxyl quantum dots with aminoethyl-microcystin (MC)-leucine-arginine (LR). A two-alkyl group was introduced to supply a spacer between the QD nanoprobe and anti-MC-LR antibody to reduce the steric hindrances of immunoreaction. The sensor system based on a portable optofluidic(More)
By magnetron controlled sputtering system, a new nanostructured metastable monoclinic phase VO2 (B) thin film has been fabricated. The testing result shows that this nanostructured VO2 (B) thin film has high temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) of -7%/K. Scanning electron microscopy measurement shows that the average grain diameter of the VO2 (B)(More)
  Sludge settling and thickening occur simultaneously in secondary settling tanks (SSTs). The ability to accurately calculate the settling and thickening capacity of activated sludge was of great importance. Despite extensive studies on the development of settling velocity models for use with SSTs, these models have not been applied due to the difficulty in(More)
In wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), activated sludge is thickened in secondary settling tanks and recycled into the biological reactor to maintain enough biomass for wastewater treatment. Accurately estimating the activated sludge concentration in the lower portion of the secondary clarifiers is of great importance for evaluating and controlling the(More)
PURPOSE Aerosol toxicology and drug delivery through the lungs, which depend on various parameters, require methods to quantify particle deposition. Intrapulmonary-administered MRI contrast agent combined with lung-specific imaging sequences has been proposed as a high performance technique for aerosol research. Here, aerosol deposition is assessed using(More)
In activated sludge systems, the aeration process consumes the most energy. The energy cost can be dramatically reduced by decreasing the operating dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration. However, low DO may lead to incomplete nitrification and poor settling performance of activated sludge flocs (ASFs). This study investigates oxygen transfer dynamics and(More)