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alpha-Synuclein and ubiquitin are two Lewy body protein components that may play antagonistic roles in the pathogenesis of Lewy bodies. We examined the relationship between alpha-synuclein, ubiquitin, and lipids in Lewy bodies of fixed brain sections or isolated from cortical tissues of dementia with Lewy bodies. Lewy bodies exhibited a range of labeling(More)
In the present study, we examined the mechanisms of hydrogen-rich saline, a reported therapeutic antioxidant, in the treatment of acute spinal cord contusion injury. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used to produce a standardized model of contuses spinal cord injury (125 kdyn force). Hydrogen-rich saline was injected intraperitoneally (5 ml/kg) immediately,(More)
The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a critical role in pain hypersensitivity. BDNF is the ligand of P2X4 receptors (P2X4R) in the microglia. The causative factors involving the P2X4R over expression in the microglia remains unclear. Mast cell activation has a close relation with pain hypersensitivity. However, the underlying mechanism between(More)
Pathogenic pain is a common sign of many diseases. The mechanism is unclear. Activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) plays a critical role in cell activation. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is an important molecule in pathogenic pain. This study aims to investigate the role of ATF4 in inducing BDNF release from microglial cells. In this study,(More)
NOD1 (nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 1) protein is a member of the NLR (NACHT and leucine rich repeat domain containing proteins) protein family, which plays a key role in innate immunity as a sensor of specific microbial components derived from bacterial peptidoglycans and induction of inflammatory responses. Mutations in NOD proteins have been(More)
BACKGROUND Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are often associated with persistent pains such as neuropathic and inflammatory pain. Hydrogen gas can reduce ROS and alleviate cerebral, myocardial, and hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injuries. In the present study, we aim to investigate whether hydrogen-rich saline can reduce neuropathic pain in a rat model of(More)
The aim of the study is to utilize electrical impedance tomography (EIT) to guide positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and to optimize oxygenation in patients undergoing laparoscopic abdominal surgery.Fifty patients were randomly assigned to the control (C) group and the EIT (E) group (n = 25 each). We set the fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) at 0.30.(More)
Peripheral nerve injury (PNI) is a common disease, which results in a partial or total loss of motor, sensory and autonomic functions, leading to a decrease in quality of life. Schwann cells play a vital role in maintaining the peripheral nervous system and in injury and repair. Using immunohistochemistry, Western blot, calcium assay and bromodeoxyuridine(More)
Transient global ischemia (which closely resembles clinical situations such as cardiac arrest, near drowning or severe systemic hypotension during surgical procedures), often induces delayed neuronal death in the brain, especially in the hippocampal CA1 region. The mechanism of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is not fully understood. In this study, we(More)