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The synthesis of mono- and bisphosphorothioate analogues of 3',5'-cyclic diguanylic acid (cdiGMP) via the modified H-phosphonate chemistry is reported. The immunostimulatory properties of these analogues were compared with those of cdiGMP.
We herein report a convenient synthesis of 3',5'-cyclic diguanylic acid via the modified H-phosphonate approach. The 1-(4-chlorophenyl)-4-ethoxypiperidin-4-yl (Cpep) group was used as protecting group for the 2'-hydroxy functions of ribonucleosides. Complete unblocking of the fully protected 3',5'-cyclic diguanylic acid gave cdiGMP as a homogeneous compound… (More)
3', 5'-Cyclic diguanylic acid (c-di-GMP) is a bacterial intracellular signaling molecule that plays a crucial role in the regulation of bacterial motility, adhesion, cell-to-cell communication, exopolysaccharide synthesis, biofilm formation and virulence. The recent finding that c-di-GMP can act as a danger signal on eukaryotic cells has prompted the study… (More)
This paper deals with Kansei evaluation focusing on consumers' psychological needs and personal taste. To do so, a preparatory study is conducted beforehand to obtain Kansei data of the products to be evaluated, in which products are assessed according to Kansei attributes by means of the semantic differential method and linguistic variables. These Kansei… (More)
Mucosal infections and associated diseases remain a major socio-economic burden to society. Since parenteral immunizations fail to induce efficient protective immunity at mucosal surfaces, mucosal immunization is a logical approach to prevent and treat mucosally-initiated infections. All currently approved human mucosal vaccines are based on attenuated or… (More)
3',5'-Cyclic diguanylic acid (cdiGMP) is emerging as a universal bacterial second messenger in regulating bacterial growth on surfaces. It has been recently shown that cdiGMP stimulates innate immunity and enhances antigen-specific humoral and cellular immune responses. We herein report that intranasal (i.n.) administration with cdiGMP induces an acute but… (More)
—This paper deals with the evaluation of Japanese traditional crafts, in which product items are assessed according to the so-called " Kansei " features by means of the semantic differential method. For traditional crafts, decisions on which items to buy or use are usually influenced by personal feelings/characteristics; therefore, we shall propose a… (More)