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Nucleic acids bearing glycans of various structures have been under vigorous investigation in the past decade. The carbohydrate moieties of such complexes can serve as recognition sites for carbohydrate-binding proteins-lectins-and initiate receptor-mediated endocytosis. Therefore, carbohydrates can enhance cell targeting and internalization of nucleic(More)
We herein report a convenient synthesis of 3',5'-cyclic diguanylic acid via the modified H-phosphonate approach. The 1-(4-chlorophenyl)-4-ethoxypiperidin-4-yl (Cpep) group was used as protecting group for the 2'-hydroxy functions of ribonucleosides. Complete unblocking of the fully protected 3',5'-cyclic diguanylic acid gave cdiGMP as a homogeneous compound(More)
3', 5'-Cyclic diguanylic acid (c-di-GMP) is a bacterial intracellular signaling molecule that plays a crucial role in the regulation of bacterial motility, adhesion, cell-to-cell communication, exopolysaccharide synthesis, biofilm formation and virulence. The recent finding that c-di-GMP can act as a danger signal on eukaryotic cells has prompted the study(More)
This paper deals with Kansei evaluation focusing on consumers' psychological needs and personal taste. To do so, a preparatory study is conducted beforehand to obtain Kansei data of the products to be evaluated, in which products are assessed according to Kansei attributes by means of the semantic differential method and linguistic variables. These Kansei(More)
Mucosal infections and associated diseases remain a major socio-economic burden to society. Since parenteral immunizations fail to induce efficient protective immunity at mucosal surfaces, mucosal immunization is a logical approach to prevent and treat mucosally-initiated infections. All currently approved human mucosal vaccines are based on attenuated or(More)