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Password-based authentication scheme with smart card is an important part of security for accessing remote servers. In 2011, Awasthi et al. proposed an improved timestamp-based remote user authentication scheme to eliminate the attacks in Shen et al.'s. However, we find that their scheme is vulnerable to the privileged insider, the lost smart card, the(More)
Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) has been widely used in the current Internet protocols such as Hyper Text Transport Protocol (HTTP) and Simple Mail Transport Protocol (SMTP). However, the original SIP authentication scheme was insecure and many researchers tried to propose schemes to overcome the flaws. In the year 2011, Arshad et al. proposed a SIP(More)
Schistosoma blood flukes, which cause schistosomiasis affecting 200 million people in the world, are dependent on signals from host CD4(+) T cells to facilitate parasite growth and development in the mammalian host and to induce Th2-biased inflammatory granulomas. B cells, however, are reported to down-regulate granulomatous pathology in schistosomiasis,(More)
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