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To identify susceptibility loci for schizophrenia, we performed a two-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS) of schizophrenia in the Han Chinese population (GWAS: 746 individuals with schizophrenia and 1,599 healthy controls; validation: 4,027 individuals with schizophrenia and 5,603 healthy controls). We identified two susceptibility loci for(More)
Neuregulin-1 (Nrg-1)(1) gene has been considered as a schizophrenia susceptibility gene. In order to observe the association of Nrg-1 gene with schizophrenia, the study was designed to investigate the effect of anti-psychotic treatment on the Nrg-1 mRNA expression in peripheral blood lymphocytes of the patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. The Nrg-1(More)
EphBs receptors and their ephrinBs ligands are present in the adult brain and peripheral tissue and play a critical role in modulating multiple aspects of physiology and pathophysiology. Our recent evidence has shown that ephrinBs acted as a sensitizer to participate in peripheral sensitization and hyperalgesia induced by activation of peripheral(More)
Emerging evidence has shown that miRNA-mediated gene expression modulation contributes to chronic pain, but its functional regulatory mechanism remains unknown. Here, we found that complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced chronic inflammation pain significantly reduced miRNA-219 (miR-219) expression in mice spinal neurons. Furthermore, the expression of(More)
The ice nucleation protein (INP) of Pseudomonas syringae has gained scientific interest not only because of its pathogenicity of foliar necroses but also for its wide range of potential applications, such as in snow making, frozen food preparation, and surface-display system development. However, studies on the transport activity of INP remain lacking. In(More)
The brainstem is well recognized as a critical site for integrating descending modulatory systems that both inhibit and facilitate pain at the level of the spinal cord. The cerebrospinal fluid-contacting nucleus (CSF-contacting nucleus) distributes and localizes in the ventral periaqueductal central gray of the brainstem. Although emerging lines of evidence(More)
It has been reported that distal cerebrospinal fluid-contacting neurons (dCSF-CNs) can be detected by immunohistochemical assay using cholera toxin subunit B-conjugated horseradish peroxidase (CBHRP). In the present study, another two methods with CB alone or CB-conjugated FITC (CB-FITC) were used, and the results from the three methods were compared. Adult(More)
Immunocytochemical staining for the Pi and Mu isoforms of glutathione-S-transferase was used to investigate changes in the glial cells in the mouse forebrain. During early development in mouse forebrains the localizations of carbonic anhydrase, Pi and Mu were similar to the respective cellular localizations that had been observed in neonatal rat brain. That(More)
Inwardly rectifying potassium (Kir) channels are characterized by a long pore comprised of continuous transmembrane and cytosolic portions. A high-resolution structure of a Kir3.1 chimera revealed the presence of the cytosolic (G-loop) gate captured in the closed or open conformations. Here, we conducted molecular-dynamics simulations of these two channel(More)