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Psychophysical studies indicate that perception of the colour and brightness of a surface depends on neural signals evoked by the borders of the surface rather than its interior. The visual cortex emphasizes contrast borders, but it is unclear whether colour surface signals also exist, whether colour border signals are orientation selective or mainly(More)
To investigate the effects of silymarin on the pharmacokinetics of losartan and its active metabolite E-3174 and its relationship with CYP2C9 genotypes. Twelve healthy adult men of known CYP2C9 genotype (six CYP2C9*1/*1 and six CYP2C9*1/*3) were recruited in a two-phase randomized crossover design study. The pharmacokinetics of losartan and E-3174 were(More)
The traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) are essential components of alternative medicines. Many TCMs are known to alter the expression of hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters. The molecular mechanism by which TCMs and/or their constituents regulate enzyme and transporter expression, however, has remained largely unknown. In this report, we(More)
We examined genetically determined oxidation polymorphisms of metoprolol and mephenytoin in 200 unrelated, healthy Japanese subjects and in 98 mainland Chinese subjects simultaneously. This examination was done according to the respective reported phenotyping criteria by use of the urinary metabolic ratio of metoprolol and of the percentage of excretion of(More)
Studies were performed in 13 healthy subjects to determine whether treatment with rifampicin results in induction of the metabolism of mephenytoin. Daily dosing with 600 mg rifampicin for 22 days caused a three to eightfold increase in the 0-8 h urinary R/S ratio of mephenytoin following oral administration (100 mg) of racemic drug to extensive metabolizers(More)
WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS SUBJECT Rosiglitazone is able to increase serum adiponectin levels significantly in Type 2 diabetic patients. :The role of genetic factors that determine the marked interindividual variability in glucose-lowering efficacy of rosiglitazone in Chinese patients is not known. The current study was designed to evaluate the impact(More)
BACKGROUND Rosuvastatin, a novel potent HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, is excreted into bile mediated by breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP). Our objective was to determine the association between the most frequent single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the BCRP (421C>A) and the pharmacokinetics of rosuvastatin. METHOD Pre-screening of SLCO1B1 521TC(More)
1. The calcineurin inhibitor cyclosporine is widely used to prevent allograft rejection after solid organ transplantation. It has a narrow therapeutic index and shows considerable interindividual differences in its pharmacokinetics. Interindividual differences in the activity and expression of the metabolising enzymes cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 and 3A5 and(More)
BACKGROUND Human cytochrome P450 3A evolved to catalyze the metabolism of numerous common therapy drugs and endogenous molecules. Members of the CYP3A are the majority expressed in human liver and intestine, and there are marked interindividual differences in their protein expression and activity. The activity of CYP3A enzyme in Chinese is highly variable,(More)
AIMS To determine the induction effect of rifampicin on the activity of 4'-hydroxylase in poor metabolizers (PMs) with m1 mutation of S-mephenytoin 4'-hydroxylation and the relationship of the effect with gene dose. METHODS Seven extensive metabolizers (EMs) of S-mephenytoin 4'-hydroxylation and five PMs with m1 mutation were chosen to take rifampicin 300(More)