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The Rho family of GTPases have important roles in the morphogenesis of the dendritic spines of neurons in the brain and synaptic plasticity by modulating the organization of the actin cytoskeleton. Here we used two-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy to monitor the activity of two Rho GTPases-RhoA and Cdc42-in single dendritic spines undergoing(More)
The hypothalamus is a central regulator of many behaviors that are essential for survival, such as temperature regulation, food intake and circadian rhythms. However, the molecular pathways that mediate hypothalamic development are largely unknown. To identify genes expressed in developing mouse hypothalamus, we performed microarray analysis at 12 different(More)
Adult hypothalamic neurogenesis has recently been reported, but the cell of origin and the function of these newborn neurons are unknown. Using genetic fate mapping, we found that median eminence tanycytes generate newborn neurons. Blocking this neurogenesis altered the weight and metabolic activity of adult mice. These findings reveal a previously(More)
The pre-Bötzinger complex (pre-BötC) is a physiologically defined group of ventrolateral medullary neurons that plays a central role in respiratory rhythm generation. These cells are located in a portion of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) that is difficult to identify precisely for lack of a specific marker. We sought to determine whether(More)
In plant sexual reproduction, pollen tubes elongate from the stigma, through the stylar transmitting tissue, to the ovary of the pistil to deliver the male gametes for fertilization. TTS protein is a tobacco transmitting tissue glycoprotein shown to attract pollen tubes and promote their growth. Here, we show TTS proteins adhere to the pollen tube surface(More)
Pollen tubes elongate directionally in the extracellular matrix of pistil tissues to transport the male gametes from the apically located stigma to the basally located ovary for fertilization. The molecular mechanisms underlying directional pollen tube growth in the pistil are poorly understood. We have purified a glycoprotein, TTS, from tobacco stylar(More)
The Mas-related G-protein-coupled receptor D (Mrgprd) marks a distinct subset of sensory neurons that transmit polymodal nociceptive information from the skin epidermis to the substantia gelatinosa (SG, lamina II) of the spinal cord. Moreover, Mrgprd-expressing (Mrgprd(+)) neurons are required for the full expression of mechanical but not thermal(More)
Nicotine promotes glutamatergic synaptic plasticity in dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), which is thought to be an important mechanism underlying nicotine reward. However, it is unclear whether exposure of nicotine alone to VTA slice is sufficient to increase glutamatergic synaptic strength on DA neurons and which nicotinic(More)
Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) is highly expressed in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). It is involved in multiple physiological functions and is a target for treatment of various CNS disorders, including schizophrenia. We report that Norbin, a neuron-specific protein, physically interacts with mGluR5 in vivo, increases the cell(More)
Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) is a blue-light-gated ion channel that can be used to stimulate genetically defined neurons reproducibly, rapidly and non-invasively. Existing approaches for delivering light to cells expressing ChR2 rely upon microscopes, lasers, arc lamps and shutters, all of which are relatively expensive and are not readily scalable for use on(More)