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Most approaches to mining association rules implicitly consider the utilities of the itemsets to be equal. We assume that the utilities of itemsets may differ, and identify the high utility itemsets based on information in the transaction database and external information about utilities. Our theoretical analysis of the resulting problem lays the foundation(More)
The rationale behind mining frequent itemsets is that only itemsets with high frequency are of interest to users. However , the practical usefulness of frequent itemsets is limited by the significance of the discovered itemsets. A frequent item-set only reflects the statistical correlation between items, and it does not reflect the semantic significance of(More)
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) has tissue-specific effects on growth, differentiation, and gene expression. We show here that cAMP can activate the transcription factor Elk-1 and induce neuronal differentiation of PC12 cells via its activation of the MAP kinase cascade. These cell type-specific actions of cAMP require the expression of the(More)
The phytohormone auxin plays critical roles in the regulation of plant growth and development. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) has been recognized as the major auxin for more than 70 y. Although several pathways have been proposed, how auxin is synthesized in plants is still unclear. Previous genetic and enzymatic studies demonstrated that both TRYPTOPHAN(More)
The 140-kb a1-sh2 interval of the maize genome contains at least four genes (a1, yz1, x1, and sh2). Partial sequence analysis of two haplotypes has revealed many single nucleotide polymorphisms and InDel polymorphisms, including several large structural polymorphisms. The physical positions of 101 meiotic recombination breakpoints are not distributed(More)
A pattern is of utility to a person if its use by that person contributes to reaching a goal. Utility based measures use the utilities of the patterns to reflect the user's goals. In this paper, we first review utility based measures for itemset mining. Then, we present a unified framework for incorporating several utility based measures into the data(More)
In this paper, we propose an efficient rule discovery algorithm, called FD_Mine, for mining functional dependencies from data. By exploiting Armstrong’s Axioms for functional dependencies, we identify equivalences among attributes, which can be used to reduce both the size of the dataset and the number of functional dependencies to be checked. We first(More)
Five ab initio programs (FGENESH, GeneMark.hmm, GENSCAN, GlimmerR and Grail) were evaluated for their accuracy in predicting maize genes. Two of these programs, GeneMark.hmm and GENSCAN had been trained for maize; FGENESH had been trained for monocots (including maize), and the others had been trained for rice or Arabidopsis. Initial evaluations were(More)
Chromatin and gene regulatory molecules tend to operate in multisubunit complexes in the process of controlling gene expression. Accumulating evidence suggests that varying the amount of any one member of such complexes will affect the function of the whole via the kinetics of assembly and other actions. In effect, they exhibit a "balance" among themselves(More)
The Ten-Eleven-Translocation 2 (TET2) gene, which oxidates 5-methylcytosine in DNA to 5-hydroxylmethylcytosine (5hmC), is a key tumor suppressor frequently mutated in hematopoietic malignancies. However, the molecular regulation of TET2 expression is poorly understood. We show that TET2 is under extensive microRNA (miRNA) regulation, and such TET2 targeting(More)