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Today's data networks are surprisingly fragile and difficult to manage. We argue that the root of these problems lies in the complexity of the control and management planes--the software and protocols coordinating network elements--and particularly the way the decision logic and the distributed-systems issues are inexorably intertwined. We advocate a(More)
Auditory brainstem response (ABR) techniques, an electrophysiological far-field recording method widely used in clinical evaluation of human hearing, were adapted for fishes to overcome the major limitations of traditional behavioral and electrophysiological methods (e.g., invasive surgery, lengthy training of fishes, etc.) used for fish hearing research.(More)
This paper describes a modi"ed logical thresholding method for binarization of seriously degraded and very poor quality gray-scale document images. This method can deal with complex signal-dependent noise, variable background intensity caused by nonuniform illumination, shadow, smear or smudge and very low contrast. The output image has no obvious loss of(More)
We present Tesseract, an experimental system that enables the direct control of a computer network that is under a single administrative domain. Tesseract's design is based on the 4D architecture, which advocates the decomposition of the network control plane into decision, dissemination, discovery, and data planes. Tesseract provides two primary abstract(More)
The expression levels of many thousands of genes can be measured simultaneously by DNA microarrays (chips). This novel experimental tool has revolutionized research in molecular biology and generated considerable excitement. A typical experiment uses a few tens of such chips, each dedicated to a single sample-such as tissue extracted from a particular(More)
An adaptive spatial fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm is presented in this paper for the segmentation of three-dimensional (3-D) magnetic resonance (MR) images. The input images may be corrupted by noise and intensity nonuniformity (INU) artifact. The proposed algorithm takes into account the spatial continuity constraints by using a dissimilarity index(More)
The paper presents results of the face verification contest that was organized in conjunction with International Conference on Pattern Recognition 2000 [14]. Participants had to use identical data sets from a large, publicly available multimodal database XM2VTSDB. Training and evaluation was carried out according to an a priori known protocol ([7]).(More)