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Cancer stem cells (CSCs), or tumor-initiating cells, are involved in tumor progression and metastasis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate both normal stem cells and CSCs, and dysregulation of miRNAs has been implicated in tumorigenesis. CSCs in many tumors--including cancers of the breast, pancreas, head and neck, colon, small intestine, liver, stomach, bladder(More)
Today's data networks are surprisingly fragile and difficult to manage. We argue that the root of these problems lies in the complexity of the control and management planes--the software and protocols coordinating network elements--and particularly the way the decision logic and the distributed-systems issues are inexorably intertwined. We advocate a(More)
This paper describes a modi"ed logical thresholding method for binarization of seriously degraded and very poor quality gray-scale document images. This method can deal with complex signal-dependent noise, variable background intensity caused by nonuniform illumination, shadow, smear or smudge and very low contrast. The output image has no obvious loss of(More)
We present Tesseract, an experimental system that enables the direct control of a computer network that is under a single administrative domain. Tesseract's design is based on the 4D architecture, which advocates the decomposition of the network control plane into decision, dissemination, discovery, and data planes. Tesseract provides two primary abstract(More)
Many underwater bioacoustical recording experiments (e.g., fish sound production during courtship or agonistic encounters) are usually conducted in a controlled laboratory environment of small-sized tanks. The effects of reverberation, resonance, and tank size on the characteristics of sound recorded inside small tanks have never been fully addressed,(More)
Ocean acidification is predicted to affect marine ecosystems in many ways, including modification of fish behaviour. Previous studies have identified effects of CO(2)-enriched conditions on the sensory behaviour of fishes, including the loss of natural responses to odours resulting in ecologically deleterious decisions. Many fishes also rely on hearing for(More)
—It is well known that at low-bit-rate block discrete cosine transform compressed image exhibits visually annoying blocking and ringing artifacts. In this paper, we propose a noniter-ative, wavelet-based deblocking algorithm to reduce both types of artifacts. The algorithm exploits the fact that block discontinuities are constrained by the dc quantization(More)