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Today's data networks are surprisingly fragile and difficult to manage. We argue that the root of these problems lies in the complexity of the control and management planes--the software and protocols coordinating network elements--and particularly the way the decision logic and the distributed-systems issues are inexorably intertwined. We advocate a(More)
This paper describes a modi"ed logical thresholding method for binarization of seriously degraded and very poor quality gray-scale document images. This method can deal with complex signal-dependent noise, variable background intensity caused by nonuniform illumination, shadow, smear or smudge and very low contrast. The output image has no obvious loss of(More)
We present Tesseract, an experimental system that enables the direct control of a computer network that is under a single administrative domain. Tesseract's design is based on the 4D architecture, which advocates the decomposition of the network control plane into decision, dissemination, discovery, and data planes. Tesseract provides two primary abstract(More)
The paper presents results of the face verification contest that was organized in conjunction with International Conference on Pattern Recognition 2000 [14]. Participants had to use identical data sets from a large, publicly available multimodal database XM2VTSDB. Training and evaluation was carried out according to an a priori known protocol ([7]).(More)
One of the challenging problems for software developersis guaranteeing that a system as built is consistentwith its architectural design. In this paper we describe atechnique that uses run time observations about an executingsystem to construct an architectural view of thesystem. With this technique we develop mappings thatexploit regularities in system(More)
The expression levels of many thousands of genes can be measured simultaneously by DNA microarrays (chips). This novel experimental tool has revolutionized research in molecular biology and generated considerable excitement. A typical experiment uses a few tens of such chips, each dedicated to a single sample-such as tissue extracted from a particular(More)
A major problem with traditional skeletonization algorithms is that their results do not always conform to human perceptions since they often contain unwanted artifacts. This paper presents an indirect skeletonization method to reduce these artifacts. The method is based on analyzing regularities and singularities of shapes. A shape is first partitioned(More)
We address the problem of nding a \tight" representation of complex logical constraints in a mixed integer programming model by describing a convex hull representation of cardinality rules. A cardinality rule asserts that if at least k of the propositions A 1 ; : : : ; A m are true, then at least l of the propositions B 1 ; : : : ; B n are true. As(More)