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A genetic interaction network containing approximately 1000 genes and approximately 4000 interactions was mapped by crossing mutations in 132 different query genes into a set of approximately 4700 viable gene yeast deletion mutants and scoring the double mutant progeny for fitness defects. Network connectivity was predictive of function because interactions(More)
The three members of the T1R class of taste-specific G protein-coupled receptors have been hypothesized to function in combination as heterodimeric sweet taste receptors. Here we show that human T1R2/T1R3 recognizes diverse natural and synthetic sweeteners. In contrast, human T1R1/T1R3 responds to the umami taste stimulus l-glutamate, and this response is(More)
Defining the functional relationships between proteins is critical for understanding virtually all aspects of cell biology. Large-scale identification of protein complexes has provided one important step towards this goal; however, even knowledge of the stoichiometry, affinity and lifetime of every protein-protein interaction would not reveal the functional(More)
Multicast communication, in which the same message is delivered from a source node to an arbitrary number of destination nodes, is being increasingly demanded in parallel computing. System supported multicast services can potentially ooer improved performance, increased functionality, and simpliied programming, and may in turn be used to support various(More)
The T1R receptors, a family of taste-specific class C G protein-coupled receptors, mediate mammalian sweet and umami tastes. The structure-function relationships of T1R receptors remain largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate the different functional roles of T1R extracellular and transmembrane domains in ligand recognition and G protein coupling.(More)
Plant cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) results from incompatibilities between the organellar and nuclear genomes and prevents self pollination, enabling hybrid crop breeding to increase yields. The Wild Abortive CMS (CMS-WA) has been exploited in the majority of 'three-line' hybrid rice production since the 1970s, but the molecular basis of this trait(More)
Ctf8p is a component of Ctf18-RFC, an alternative replication factor C-like complex required for efficient sister chromatid cohesion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We performed synthetic genetic array (SGA) analysis with a ctf8 deletion strain as a primary screen to identify other nonessential genes required for efficient sister chromatid cohesion. We then(More)
TAS1R- and TAS2R-type taste receptors are expressed in the gustatory system, where they detect sweet- and bitter-tasting stimuli, respectively. These receptors are also expressed in subsets of cells within the mammalian gastrointestinal tract, where they mediate nutrient assimilation and endocrine responses. For example, sweeteners stimulate taste receptors(More)
Umami is one of the 5 basic taste qualities. The umami taste of L-glutamate can be drastically enhanced by 5' ribonucleotides and the synergy is a hallmark of this taste quality. The umami taste receptor is a heteromeric complex of 2 class C G-protein-coupled receptors, T1R1 and T1R3. Here we elucidate the molecular mechanism of the synergy using chimeric(More)
Variation in human taste is a well-known phenomenon. However, little is known about the molecular basis for it. Bitter taste in humans is believed to be mediated by a family of 25 G protein-coupled receptors (hT2Rs, or TAS2Rs). Despite recent progress in the functional expression of hT2Rs in vitro, up until now, hT2R38, a receptor for phenylthiocarbamide(More)