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Galanin, a 29-amino-acid peptide expressed in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and spinal dorsal horn interneurones, is regulated by nerve injury and peripheral inflammation. The functional significance of such regulation has been subject to intense studies, including the analysis of galanin null mice, with the production of apparently conflicting results. Here,(More)
Wnt and Shh signaling pathways are critical for the development and maturation of many epithelial tissues. Both pathways have roles in stem cell maintenance, tissue development, and tumorigenesis. However, linkage between these pathways in mammalian systems had not been well established. Here, we report that Shh expression in fungiform papillae and(More)
From time of embryonic emergence, the gustatory papilla types on the mammalian tongue have stereotypic anterior and posterior tongue locations. Furthermore, on anterior tongue, the fungiform papillae are patterned in rows. Among the many molecules that have potential roles in regulating papilla location and pattern, Sonic hedgehog (Shh) has been localized(More)
The epithelium of mammalian tongue hosts most of the taste buds that transduce gustatory stimuli into neural signals. In the field of taste biology, taste bud cells have been described as arising from "local epithelium", in distinction from many other receptor organs that are derived from neurogenic ectoderm including neural crest (NC). In fact,(More)
Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) has been shown to be an effective measure for pain relief. The aim of the present study was to determine the optimal intensity and interval of repeated 100 Hz TENS for the treatment of chronic inflammatory hyperalgesia in a monoarthritic pain model of the rat, and to assess the changes of the spinal(More)
Taste papillae are ectodermal specializations that serve to house and distribute the taste buds and their renewing cell populations in specific locations on the tongue. We previously showed that Sonic hedgehog (Shh) has a major role in regulating the number and spatial pattern of fungiform taste papillae on embryonic rat tongue, during a specific period of(More)
Fungiform papillae are epithelial specializations that develop in a linear pattern on the anterior mammalian tongue and differentiate to eventually contain taste buds. Little is known about morphogenetic and pattern regulation of these crucial taste organs. We used embryonic rat tongue, organ cultures to test roles for bone morphogenetic proteins, BMP2, 4(More)
The fungiform papilla is a gustatory organ that provides a specific tissue residence for taste buds on the anterior tongue. Thus, during development there must be a progressive differentiation to acquire papilla epithelium, then taste cell progenitor epithelium, and finally taste cells within the papilla apex. Arranged in rows, the patterned distribution of(More)
Although canonical Wnt signaling is known to regulate taste papilla induction and numbers, roles for noncanonical Wnt pathways in tongue and taste papilla development have not been explored. With mutant mice and whole tongue organ cultures we demonstrate that Wnt5a protein and message are within anterior tongue mesenchyme across embryo stages from the(More)
Neuronal degeneration and astrogliosis are hallmarks of prion disease. Synthetic prion protein (PrP) peptide 106-126 (PrP106-126) can induce death of neurons and proliferation of astrocytes in vitro and this neurotoxic effect depends on the expression of cellular PrP (PrPC) and is hence believed to be PrP(C) -mediated. To further elucidate the involvement(More)