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Galanin, a 29-amino-acid peptide expressed in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and spinal dorsal horn interneurones, is regulated by nerve injury and peripheral inflammation. The functional significance of such regulation has been subject to intense studies, including the analysis of galanin null mice, with the production of apparently conflicting results. Here,(More)
Wnt and Shh signaling pathways are critical for the development and maturation of many epithelial tissues. Both pathways have roles in stem cell maintenance, tissue development, and tumorigenesis. However, linkage between these pathways in mammalian systems had not been well established. Here, we report that Shh expression in fungiform papillae and(More)
From time of embryonic emergence, the gustatory papilla types on the mammalian tongue have stereotypic anterior and posterior tongue locations. Furthermore, on anterior tongue, the fungiform papillae are patterned in rows. Among the many molecules that have potential roles in regulating papilla location and pattern, Sonic hedgehog (Shh) has been localized(More)
Taste papillae are ectodermal specializations that serve to house and distribute the taste buds and their renewing cell populations in specific locations on the tongue. We previously showed that Sonic hedgehog (Shh) has a major role in regulating the number and spatial pattern of fungiform taste papillae on embryonic rat tongue, during a specific period of(More)
Fungiform papillae are epithelial specializations that develop in a linear pattern on the anterior mammalian tongue and differentiate to eventually contain taste buds. Little is known about morphogenetic and pattern regulation of these crucial taste organs. We used embryonic rat tongue, organ cultures to test roles for bone morphogenetic proteins, BMP2, 4(More)
Determination of the transcription level of cellular prion protein (PrPC) is essential for understanding its poorly explained role in organisms. Scrapie in sheep is the prototype of all prion diseases. However, the expression of prion protein (PrP) mRNA in sheep has not been quantified in great detail. Herein we report on measurement of sheep PrP mRNA using(More)
The open reading frame of peacock and parakeet prion protein (PrP) genes was cloned and sequenced. The peacock and parakeet PrP genes consisted of 833 and 866 nucleotides encoding 266 and 277 amino acids, respectively (GenBank Accession numbers AY365065 and AY365066). Sequence analysis showed that the peacock and parakeet PrP genes had 93.67% homology to(More)
BACKGROUND Previous studies concerning the association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism and colorectal cancer risk in Asian populations generated conflicting results. A meta-analysis was therefore performed to allow a more reliable estimate of any link. METHODS Relevant studies concerning the association between the(More)
The fungiform papilla is a gustatory organ that provides a specific tissue residence for taste buds on the anterior tongue. Thus, during development there must be a progressive differentiation to acquire papilla epithelium, then taste cell progenitor epithelium, and finally taste cells within the papilla apex. Arranged in rows, the patterned distribution of(More)
The epithelium of mammalian tongue hosts most of the taste buds that transduce gustatory stimuli into neural signals. In the field of taste biology, taste bud cells have been described as arising from "local epithelium", in distinction from many other receptor organs that are derived from neurogenic ectoderm including neural crest (NC). In fact,(More)