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Accumulation of amyloid-beta (Abeta) within extracellular spaces of the brain is a hallmark of Alzheimer disease (AD). In sporadic, late-onset AD, there is little evidence for increased Abeta production, suggesting that decreased elimination from the brain may contribute to elevated levels of Abeta and plaque formation. Efflux transport of Abeta across the(More)
Apolipoprotein E (apoE) genotype has a major influence on the risk for Alzheimer disease (AD). Different apoE isoforms may alter AD pathogenesis via their interactions with the amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta). Mice lacking the lipid transporter ABCA1 were found to have markedly decreased levels and lipidation of apoE in the central nervous system. We(More)
Antigenic variation is a strategy exploited by influenza viruses to promote survival in the face of the host adaptive immune response and constitutes a major obstacle to efficient vaccine development. Thus, variation in the surface glycoproteins hemagglutinin and neuraminidase is reflected by changes in susceptibility to antibody neutralization. This has(More)
We present results on enhancement of 460 nm blue and 340 nm UV optical power output in III-nitride light emitting diodes ͑LEDs͒ using photonic crystals ͑PCs͒ under current injection. Triangular arrays of the PCs with diameter/periodicity of 300/700 nm were patterned using electron-beam lithography and inductively coupled plasma dry etching. The total power(More)
Our objective is to determine the neuromodulatory role of ghrelin in the brain. To identify neurons that express the ghrelin receptor [GH secretagogue receptor (GHS-R)], we generated GHS-R-IRES-tauGFP mice by gene targeting. Neurons expressing the GHS-R exhibit green fluorescence and are clearly evident in the hypothalamus, hippocampus, cortex, and(More)
Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesias is a paroxysmal movement disorder characterized by recurrent, brief attacks of abnormal involuntary movements induced by sudden voluntary movements. Although several loci, including the pericentromeric region of chromosome 16, have been linked to paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesias, the causative gene has not yet been(More)
Oxidative stress has been implicated in the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of Parkinson's disease patients, and several anti-oxidants have been shown to be effective on the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Curcumin has been previously reported to possess radical scavenger, iron chelating, anti-inflammatory properties in(More)
Although tau is a cytoplasmic protein, it is also found in brain extracellular fluids, e.g., CSF. Recent findings suggest that aggregated tau can be transferred between cells and extracellular tau aggregates might mediate spread of tau pathology. Despite these data, details of whether tau is normally released into the brain interstitial fluid (ISF), its(More)
Elevated iron levels in the substantia nigra (SN) participate in neuronal death in Parkinson's disease, in which the misregulation of iron transporters such as divalent metal transporter (DMT1) and ferroportin1 (FP1) are involved. Our previous work observed that nigral iron levels were increased in MPTP-treated mice and Ginsenoside Rg1 which is one of the(More)
The small-world organization has been hypothesized to reflect a balance between local processing and global integration in the human brain. Previous multimodal imaging studies have consistently demonstrated that the topological architecture of the brain network is disrupted in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, these studies have reported inconsistent(More)